Xerophytic lichens from gypsiferous outcrops of arid areas of Andalusia as a source of anti-phytopathogenic depsides

Fernández-Pastor I., González-Menéndez V., Martínez Andrade K., Serrano R., Mackenzie T.A., Benítez G., Casares-Porcel M., Genilloud O. & Reyes F.
Journal of Fungi
9(9): 887 [13 p.]
In a survey to evaluate the potential of lichens associated with gypsum areas as sources of new antifungal metabolites, six species of lichens were collected in the gypsum outcrops of the Sorbas Desert (Diploschistes ocellatus and Seirophora lacunosa) and the Tabernas Desert (Cladonia foliacea, Acarospora placodiformis, Squamarina lentigera and Xanthoparmelia pokornyi) in southern Spain. Raw lichen acetone extracts were tested against a panel of seven phytopathogenic fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense TR4, Fusarium ploriferaum, Magnaporthe grisea, Verticillium dahliae and Zymoseptoria tritici. Active extracts of Cladonia foliacea, Xanthoparmelia pokornyi and Squamarina lentigera were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and Molecular Networking to identify possible metabolites responsible for the antifungal activity. A total of ten depside-like metabolites were identified by MS/MS dereplication and NMR experiments, of which one was a new derivative of fumaroprotocetraric acid. The compounds without previously described biological activity were purified and tested against the panel of fungal phytopathogens. Herein, the antifungal activity against fungal phytopathogens of 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid, divaricatic acid and stenosporic acid is reported for the first time. Stenosporic and divaricatic acids displayed a broad antifungal spectrum against seven relevant fungal phytopathogens in a micromolar range, including the extremely resistant fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (TR4). 4′-O-methylpaludosic acid exhibited specific antifungal activity against the wheat pathogen Z. tritici, with an IC50 of 38.87 µg/mL (87.1 µM) in the absorbance-based assay and 24.88 µg/mL (55.52 µM) in the fluorescence-based assay. Keywords: xerophytic lichens; antifungal activity; biopesticides; fungal phytopathogens; dereplication; MS/MS molecular networking; depsides.
Wednesday, 30 August 2023 15:35