31005Cezanne R., Eichler M., Hohmann M.-L. & Wirth V. (2008): Die Flechten des Odenwaldes. - Andrias, 17: 1–520.
In a comprehensive study, all species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi detected within the Odenwald, a mountain area near Heidelberg, were treat ed and their distribution shown in grid maps. During an observation period of more than 20 years a total of 660 lichen species and 78 species of lichenicolous fungi were found. These are very high numbers for an area of 2,500 km2 that reaches an altitude of only 600 m above sea level. The high number of fi nds can be attributed to several factors including: a very thorough search, a favourable climate for lichens and the considerable recovery of the lichen vegetation following the decrease of SO2 pollution during the last 10-15 years. The highest number of species registered in a single MTB quadrant (5.5 x 6 km) was 319, with 425 being recorded in a whole MTB area (11 x 12 km). These numbers surpass those of comparable regions in Germany and reach up to the records of the mountainous areas of the Black Forest. 142 species are new to the Odenwald. 55 species are new for Hesse, 39 for Baden-Württemberg, 32 for Bavaria, among them many lichenicolous fungi which are still not suffi ciently known. New to Germany are: Fellhanera ochracea, Lichenochora coarctatae, Lichenodiplis hawksworthii, Pronectria oligospora, P. ornamentata, Thelocarpon magnussonii, T. saxicola and Vezdaea stipitata. Aphanopsis coenosa, Arthonia mediella, A. molendoi, Sphinctrina tubiformis and Thelocarpon coccosporum, had all been missing from Germany for a number of years, but were found again. Further remark able species present are, e.g. Arthonia endlicheri, Arthothelium spectabile, Catinaria atropurpurea, Cyphelium lecideinum, C. sessile, Diplotomma lutosum, Gyalidea diaphana, Immersaria athroo carpa, Lecanora rhodi, Lobothallia praeradiosa, Micarea hedlundii and Thelenella pertusariella. 193 species are extinct or have been missing for a long time. For all present species the number of records (= number of quadrants where the species is present) is mentioned and the trend of the population (decreasing / increasing) as well as the degree of endangerment in the region is evaluated. Species with a subatlantic and temperate-central- european distribution are well represented, whereas the boreal-montane element, e.g. Umbilicaria deusta, U. polyphylla, Immersaria athroocarpa and Lecidea commaculans, is scarce as a consequence of the low altitude of the Odenwald. Conspicuously frequent are species with an atlantic-subatlantic or subatlantic-submediterranean distribution, e.g. Flavoparmelia caperata, Punctelia borreri, Bacidia neosquamulosa or Lecanora sinuosa, which spread to the east during the last few years as a result of the warming climate. In an extensive investigation the literature was analysed, and the accessible historical samples of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Odenwald were checked. Many samples from Otto Behr (preserved in Botanical Museum Berlin), who was collecting between 1947 and 1957 and published his results in 1954, were revised.
31004Nascimbene J. (2006): Flechten / Licheni epifiti (Lichenes). – In: Kranebitter P. & Hilpold A., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2006 am Fuß der Vajolettürme (Rosengarten, Gemeinde Tiers, Südtirol, Italien). - Gredleriana, 6: 418–420.
31003Komposch H., Emmerer B. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2004): Flechten (Lichenes) - 92 Arten. – In: Wieser C., Komposch C., Krainer K. & Wagner J., 6. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Griffner Schlossberg und Griffner See, Kärnten 11./12. Juni 2004. - Carinthia II, 194/114: 544–547.
Keywords: GEO-day, biodiversity, Griffner Schlossberg, Griffner See, Carinthia, Austria.
31002Taurer-Zeiner C. & Pichorner B. (2003): Flechten (Lichenes) - 55 Arten. – In: Krainer K. & Wieser C., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Danielsberg/Mölltal, Kernten 13./14. Juni 2003. - Carinthia II, 193/113: 342–343.
Key Words: GEO-day, biodiversity, Danielsberg, Kärnten.
31001Komposch H. & Emmerer B. (2007): Flechten (Lichenes) – 116 Arten. – In: Krainer K., 9. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Leonstain und Umgebung, Pörtschach am Wörthersee/Kärnten 8./9. Juni 2007. - Carinthia II, 197/117: 502–504.
In the 9th GEO-day of biodiversity, which took place on the 8th to 9th Juni in a part of protected landscape Leonstain and environs in the community of Pörtschach am Wörthersee (Carinthia), 93 scientists, amateur researchers and about 33 pupils from Pörtschach, Klagenfurt and Wolfsberg were involved. During the period of 24 hours 1343 species of 33 plant-, animal-, moss- and fungus-groups could be recorded.
31000Nascimbene J. (2007): Flechten / Licheni. – In: Kranebitter P. & Wilhalm T., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2007 am Fuß des Plattkofels (Seiser Alm, Gemeinde Kastelruth, Südtirol, Italien). - Gredleriana, 7: 421–424.
30999Nascimbene J. (2005): Flechten / Licheni (Lichenes). – In: Haller R., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2004 am Schlern (Südtirol). - Gredleriana, 5: 367–370.
30998Gros P., Bauch C., Foissner W., Heiss E., Hierschläger M., Lindner R., Lohmeyer T.R., Medicus C., Neuner W., Oertel A., Pfleger H.S., Pilsl P., Stöhr O., Taurer-Zeiner C., Türk R. & Wittmann H. (2012): Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Seidlwinkltal (Rauris, Salzburg) – GEO Tag der Artenvielfalt [National Park Hohe Tauern (Rauris, Salzburg). – GEO-day of biodiversity]. - Abhandlungen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 38: 1–70.
The fourth “Hohe Tauern National Park Biodiversity Day” (“Nationalpark Hohe Tauern Tag der Artenvielfalt” – TAV 2010) took place between 28 and 30 May 2010 in the Seidlwinkl valley in Salzburg. On this occasion, 50 experts detected 1,288 different species of animals, plants and fungi. Up to that point, about 850 taxa were listed for this area in the National Park Biodiversity Databank in Salzburg’s museum “Haus der Natur”, above all flowering plants (National Park marshland mapping project, Wittmann et al. 2007), bumblebees (private databank Johann Neumayer), beetles (Geiser 2001), butterflies/moths (data of Salzburg’s Entomological Association and from the National Park butterflies mapping project: Huemer & Wieser 2008) and birds (various sources). During the TAV 2010, further organisms groups were recorded: Ciliates, mosses, algae, lichens, fungi, grasshoppers, bugs, diptera, amphibians, reptiles and mammals were identified and inserted in the National Park Biodiversity Databank. A total of more than 3,600 new data records were added. As compared to former TAVs, the alpine zone has been less well covered due to the early date. Despite the very promising results, many experts noticed conspicuous human-caused damage to the landscape, such as drainage or increasingly intensive agriculture, above all in the wetlands between Gollehen- and Palfneralm. This will negatively affect the local ecological balance and biodiversity: The national park administration should react to those deficits in the protection of this area. Keywords: Hohe Tauern National Park, GEO biodiversity day, Seidlwinkl valley, records, plants, animals, fungi.
30997Hofmann P. (2005): Flechten (Lichenes) – 208 Arten. – In: Pagitz K., Huemer P. & Jedinger A., GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2005 in Tirol - Erhebungen im Naturpark Kaunergrat. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 92: 319–324.
30996Pfleger H.S., Kainhofer E. & Türk R. (2007): Flechten Lichens. – In: Pagitz K. (ed.), Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2007 in Tirol – Ötztal. - Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum, 87: 124–135.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt" 2007 (7th to 10th of July 2007) in the North Tyrolean Ötz valley (Austria) 325 taxa of lichens have been found. With Chaenotheca phaeocephala there is also a new report of lichen for North Tyrol; other notable species are Heterodermia obscurata, which is very rare in Austria and Candelariella kuusamoensis, of which it is the second known site in North Tyrol.
30995Türk R. (2015): Flechten (Lichenes). – In: Pagitz K. & Huemer P., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2015 in Tirol – Valsertal. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 8: 147–153.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2015 in the North Tyrolean Valsertal (Austria) 212 taxa of lichens have been found.
30994Brockmüller H. (1863): 4. Beiträge zur Kryptogamen-Flora Mecklenburgs. - Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 17: 162–256.
Germany; lichens at p. 207–233
30993Türk R., Pagitz C.L. & Pagitz K. (2016): Flechten. – In: Pagitz K. & Huemer P., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2016 in Tirol – Thiersee. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 9: 163–167.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2016 in the North Tyrolean Thiersee (Austria) 116 taxa of lichens have been found.
30992Türk R., Pfleger H.S. & Goldberger C. (2009): Flechten im Alpenpark Karwendel – Hinterautal. – In: Pagitz K., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2008 in Tirol - Alpenpark Karwendel. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 2: 184–188.
Within the scope of the “GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt” 2008 (13th of September) in the North Tyrolean “Alpenpark Karwendel” (Austria) 136 taxa of lichenshave been found. The lichen Physcia leptalea is recorded for the first time for the area of North Tyrol.
30991Türk R. & Pfleger H.S. (2010): Flechten im Naturpark Zillertal. – In: Pagitz K., Geo-Tag der Artenvielfalt 2009 in Tirol - Naturpark Zillertal. - Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen, 3: 404–410.
Within the scope of the „GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2009 (16th to 19th of July) in the North Tyrolean „Naturpark Zillertal“ (Austria) 204 taxa of lichens have been found. The most remarkable finding is Micarea lithinella which is new for Tyrol.
30990Komposch H., Emmerer B. & Taurer-Zeiner C. (2005): Flechten (Lichenes) - 90 Arten. – In: Krainer K. & Wieser C., 7. GEO-Tag der Artenvielfalt Stift Viktring- Klagenfurt, Kärnten 10./11. Juni 2005. - Carinthia II, 195/115: 701–703.
30989Steiner J. (1907): Bearbeitung der in Südarabien, auf Sokótra und den benachbarten Inseln gesammelten Flechten. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Math.-Naturw. Kl., 71: 93–102.
Socotra
30988Nascimbene J. (2006): Indagine lichenologica nelle aree di monitoraggio integrato IT01-Renon e IT02-Monticolo (Alto Adige) [Lichen survey in the Biomonitoring plots IT01-Renon and IT02-Monticolo in South Tyrol] . - Forest Observer, 2/3: 157–168.
Due to their ecological role lichens are considered as reliable indicators of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Recently the biomonitoring of lichen diversity was included in the long-term monitoring program of forests EU/ICP. During 2006 a lichen survey was carried out in the plots IT01-Renon and IT02-Monticolo in South Tyrol. The aims of the work are to obtain a first lichen checklist of the two permanent plots and to evaluate epiphytic lichen diversity in the Monticolo plot. 125 species were found, 57 of which at Monticolo and 86 at Renon. They represent ca. 10 % of the lichen flora of Trentino-Alto Adige and ca. 20 % of the epiphytic lichen flora of South Tyrol. Within the plots some nationally rare species worthy of conservation were found.
30987Egeling G. (1881): Übersicht der bisher in der Umgebung von Cassel beobachteten Lichenen. - Abhandlungen und Bericht des Vereins für Naturkunde Kassel, 28: 77–112.
30986Breuss O. & Brand M. (2010): Flechtenfunde im Salzkammergut (Oberöster­reich/Salzburg, Österreich). Ergebnisbericht über die Feldtagung der Bryologisch-lichenologischen Arbeitsgruppe der KNNV am Wolfgangsee 2008. - Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde, 19: 101–120.
As a result of the 2008 ficldmeeting of the Dutch Bryological and Lichenological Work group (Bryologische en Lichenologischc Wcrkgroep van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging) in Strobl, Salzburg, Austria, a list of 514 lichens and 22 lichenicolous fungi is presented. Anisameridium ranunculospomm, Eopvrenula grandicula, Gvalecta sbarbari, Involucropvrenium squamulosiim, and Vernwaria boblensis are additions to the known lichen flora of Austria. Additional records of Gvalecta sbarbari, previously only known from the type collection, are enclosed. Farnoldia jurana subsp. caemlea is a new combination.
30985Rücker T. & Wittmann H. (1995): Mykologisch-lichenologische Untersuchungen im Naturwaldreservat Kesselfall (Salzburg, Österreich) als Diskussionsbeitrag für Kryptogamenschutzkonzepte in Waldökosystemen. - Sydowia Beihefte, 10: 168–191.
Macromycete, lichen and vascular plant floras were investigated in the natural forest reserve “Kesselfall”, a small deciduous forest area in the inner part of the Kaprun valley (Salzburg, Austria). A total of 210 macrofungi, 153 lichens and 120 vascular plants were recorded. The percentage of “Red-List” species is high (15% for macrofungi and 19% for lichens). Less than 1% (two species) of the vascular plants observed are threatened. These results emphasize the importance of macrofungi and lichens as indicator organisms for forest ecosystems. Fayodia leucophylla, Lepiota tomentella, Peziza depressa, Pholiota mixta, Sowerbyella fagicola and Tremella mesenterica var. alba are new records for Austria, 35 fungal species are recorded for the first time in the “Land” of Salzburg. Legislative actions (nature conservation law) and management agreements (private contracts concluded between public administration and land owners) for the conservation of macrofungi in gerneral and for the investigated area in detail are discussed on the basis of the results from this study. The best way to protect fungi is to establish a network of natural forest reserves with different types of habtitats. In these conservation areas either no or extensive forest management is essential. These stragegies are the most effective way not only of reducing the threats to the flora of fungi and lichens, but also to many other organisms. Keywords: Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, ecology, plant protection.
30984Bäumler J.A. (1893): Zur Pilzflora Niederösterreichs. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 43: 277–294.
Upper Austria; Xylographa and several lichen-allied fungi included
30983Fuckel L. (1877): Symbolae mycologicae: Beiträge zur Kenntniss Rheinischer Pilze. Dritter Nachtrag. - Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde, 29–30: 1–39.
30982Albertini J.B. & Schweinitz L.D. (1805): Conspectus fungorum in Lusatiae superioris agro Niskiensi crescentium e methodo Persooniana. - Lipsiae, subtimus Kummerianis, [i-xxiv +] 376 p. [+ Tabs. I-XII].
30981Friebes G. (2017): Mykologische Untersuchungen in Naturwaldresten bei Ferlach (Kärnten, Österreich). - Carinthia II, 207/127: 449–492.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Carinthia, Karawanks, Ferlacher Horn, virgin forest, diversity, ecology. Multiclavula mucida and lichen-allied fungi included (e.g. Cryptodiscus spp.).
30980Berger F. (2017): Weitere bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde aus Oberösterreich, vorwiegend aus dem Kobernaußerwald. - Stapfia, 107: 147–151.
Ramonia chrysophaea, Staurothele geoica and Verrucaria invenusta are reported the first time in Austria. New records for Upper Austria are Caloplaca erodens, Lichenochora calcariae, Sclerococcum griseosporodochium, Verrucaria umbrinula and Zwackhiomyces calcariae. Remarkable records from outside the Alps are Biatorella hemisphaerica, Solorina spongiosa, Sporodictyon terrestre, Staurothele succedens and Verrucaria schindleri. The very rare Atla wheldonii has been located on a second site in Austria. Key words: Upper Austria, Austria, new lichen records, pyrenocarpous lichens.
30979Friebes G. (2011): Über sieben interessante, in der Steiermark nachgewiesene Schlauchpilze (Ascomycota). - Joannea Botanik, 9: 5–22.
The records of seven species of the Ascomycota are described and briefly discussed. Six species are new to Styria and five species are likely to be new to Austria. Orbilia pilifera spec. nov. is described as a species based on collections from Spain and France; this taxon is also new to Central Europe. Key words: Ascomycota, Mycoflora of Styria, Austria. Two ostropalean fungi, sometimes dealt by lichenologists, included: Cryptodiscus pini (Romell) Baloch, Gilenstam & Wedin and Karstenia idaei (Fuckel) Sherwood (collected on bark of Quercus, and of the 'Ramonia chrysophaea' outfit).
30978Marečková M., Barták M. & Hájek J. (2019): Temperature effects on photosynthetic performance of Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum: a chlorophyll fluorescence study. - Polar Biology, 42: 685–701.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is an important indicator of a photosynthetic energy conversion in chloroplast photosystem II and responds sensitively to stress factors affecting photosynthesizing organisms. Three different methods were employed to identify the most sensitive fluorescence parameters responding to thallus temperature decrease within Antarctic lichen Dermatocarpon polyphyllizum: (1) Fast chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP with parameters characterizing photosystem II functioning) (2) Slow Kautsky kinetics supplemented by saturation pulses (to evaluate quantum yield of photosynthetic processes in photosystem II, as well as maximum quantum PSII efficiency and non-photochemical and photochemical quenching), and (3) Linear cooling from + 22 to − 40 °C (to determine change in ΦPSII and the critical temperature for PSII). A K-step (usually documented at highly stressed organisms) was found in OJIPs measured at + 22 °C at 0.22–0.40 ms and attributed to the negative effect of high temperature on PSII functioning, PSII donor side limitation in particular. At subzero temperature (− 0.5, − 5 °C), an L-step was detected at 0.05 ms and related to a low temperature-induced decrease in connectivity between light-harvesting complexes and PSII. An increase of DI0/RC (the flux of dissipated excitation energy) was reported for the first time in lichens. The OJIP-derived parameters, DI0/RC and Phi_D0 (quantum yield of energy dissipation) in particular, indicated that they might be used for the detection of early events in low temperature-affected lichens. Linear cooling data determined the critical temperature (− 12 °C) for primary photosynthetic processes (ΦPSII) in Dermatocarpon. Keywords: Diplosphaera sp. OJIP K-step Kautsky kinetic Linear cooling Photosystem II.
30977Watmough S.A., Bird A., McDonough A. & Grimm E. (2019): Forest fertilization associated with oil sands emissions. - Ecosystems, 22: 1–14.
The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada, is one of the largest point sources emitters of NOx and SO2 in Canada, and there have been widespread concerns over potential ecosystem acidification owing to the acid sensitivity of the base-poor sandy soils in the region. In this study we compared soil and vegetation properties at a jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) forest adjacent to one of the largest mines in the region with a jack pine stand located approximately 15 km from the mine. At the site closest to the mine, throughfall deposition of SO4-S and DIN(NO3 + NH4) exceeds 30 and 20 kg ha-1 y-1, respectively, compared with less than 9 kg ha-1 y-1 for SO4-S and less than 2 kg ha-1 y-1 DIN at the distant site. However, on an equivalence basis, base cation (Ca + Mg + Na) deposition in throughfall at both sites exceeded the combined S and N deposition. Total S and N as well as Ca and Mg concentrations in epiphytic lichens and tree bark were significantly higher at the site adjacent to the mine, reflecting the higher acidic and base cation throughfall deposition. The forest floor at the stand close to the mine had a significantly higher pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and total S concentrations compared with the distant site. The chemistry of deeper mineral soil horizons was more consistent between the two sites. Foliar concentrations of S, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al in jack pine, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vacciniummyrtilloides and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi were also higher at the site close to the mine, but these differences were not always significant. Coincidental with differences in atmospheric deposition, herbaceous cover and biomass, especially A. uva-ursi, was significantlyhigher, and terricolous lichencoverwas several fold lower at the site closest to the mine. This work indicates that despite high S and N emissions fromoil sands activities, forest fertilization and alkalization may be of greater concern than acidification owing to large dust emissions from the mines and the Acid Deposition Management Framework for the region should be modified accordingly. Key words: oil sands; forests; acidification; eutrophication; alkalization; lichens.
30976Heindel R.C., Governali F.C., Spickard A.M. & Virginia R.A. (2019): The role of biological soil crusts in nitrogen cycling and soil stabilization in Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland. - Ecosystems, 22: 243–256.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) naturally coexist with vascular plants in many dryland ecosystems. Although most studies of dryland biocrusts have been conducted in warm deserts, dryland biocrusts also exist in the Arctic, where they may be an important source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) to nutrient-limited environments. In Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, wind-driven soil erosion has created a heterogeneous landscape where biocrusts dominate distinct patches of soil but are absent from the surrounding shrub and graminoid tundra. Prior to this study, little was known about the physical development and nutrient cycling of west Greenland biocrusts and their role in maintaining landscape heterogeneity. We characterized the physical properties, lichen assemblages, and nutrient concentrations of biocrusts and underlying soils along gradients in biocrust development and age. We found that biocrusts took 180 ± 40 years to fully develop and that biocrusts became thicker and soil penetration resistance increased as they developed. The N-fixing lichen Stereocaulon sp. was found throughout the study region at all stages of biocrust development. Natural 15N abundance suggests that Stereocaulon sp. obtains about half of its N from biological fixation and that some biologically fixed N is incorporated into the underlying soils over time. Although the N and C concentrations of underlying soils increased slightly with biocrust development, nutrient concentrations under the most developed biocrusts remained low compared to the surrounding vegetated tundra. Our results suggest that biocrusts are a persistent feature and play an important role in maintaining the high spatial heterogeneity of the Kangerlussuaq terrestrial landscape. Key words: Aeolian processes; Arctic; biological soil crust; Greenland; nitrogen fixation; nutrient cycling; drylands.
30975Teltewskoi A., Michaelis D., Schirrmeister L., Joosten H., Schiefelbein U. & Manthey M. (2019): A robust vegetation-based elevation transfer method for reconstructing Arctic polygon mire palaeo-microtopography. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 522: 12–27.
The reconstruction of past environments by means of macrofossil and pollen analysis is commonly based on the modern ecological preferences of the taxa that may have produced these fossils. Here we present a modelling approach, in which we use modern vegetation–surface height relationships to quantify past surface heights in an Arctic ice-wedge polygon mire. Vegetation composition and ground surface height (GSH) were assessed in a polygon mire near Kytalyk (Northeastern Siberia). Cluster analysis revealed five plant communities, which are clearly separated with respect to ground surface height, frost surface height and coverages of open water and vegetation. Based on the composition of modern vegetation we constructed two sets of potential fossil types (plant macrofossils and pollen), an extensive one and a more restricted one to reflect different conditions of preservation and recognisability. We applied Canonical Correspondence Analysis to model the relationships between potential fossil types and measured GSH. Both models show a strong relationship between modelled and measured GSH values and a high accuracy in prediction. Finally, we used the models to predict GSH values for Holocene peat samples and found a fair correspondence with expert-based multi-proxy reconstruction of wetness conditions, even though only a minor part of the encountered fossils were represented in the GSH models, illustrating the robustness of the approach. Our approach can be used to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions in a more objective way and can serve as a template for further palaeoecological studies.
30974El-Garawani I.M., Elkhateeb W.A., Zaghlol G.M., Almeer R.S., Ahmed E.F., Rateb M.E. & Abdel Moneim A.E. (2019): Candelariella vitellina extract triggers in vitro and in vivo cell death through induction of apoptosis: A novel anticancer agent. - Food and Chemical Toxicology, 127: 110–119.
Candelariella vitellina is common green-yellow lichen found on barks, wood, and rocks in Japanese forests. To investigate the mechanism of its anticancer potential, C. vitellina (80% MeOH/H2O) extract was prepared. High-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed seven new compounds and 11 natural compounds of terpenes and polyketides. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of Caco-2 cells exhibited an IC50 of 125 ± 4.1 μg/mL. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in vitro in normal human peripheral lymphocytes. Both the IC25 and IC50 were determined to explore the potent anticancer potential in this study. C. vitellina exhibited a mitochondrial P53-independent apoptotic effect with negative P53 expression and an elevated BAX/BCL2 ratio as well as upregulated CASP3 mRNA expression. Similarly, in vivo analysis showed the same pattern of anticancer potential but was dependent on the P53 expression. Furthermore, C. vitellina induced antioxidative conditions in vitro and in vivo. The decreased invasion of tumor cells in vivo and increased apoptotic features in vitro and in vivo suggest the moderate to strong apoptotic anticancer potential of C. vitellina. However, further studies are needed to determine the extent and mechanism of action on different cell lines to support the anticancer properties of this lichen. Keywords: Candelariella vitellina; Anticancer; Apoptosis; Terpenes; Polyketides.
30973Roncero-Ramos B., Muñoz-Martín M., Chamizo S., Fernández-Valbuena L., Mendoza D., Perona E., Cantón Y. & Mateo P. (2019): Polyphasic evaluation of key cyanobacteria in biocrusts from the most arid region in Europe. - PeerJ, 7:e6169 [27 p.].
Cyanobacteria are key microbes in topsoil communities that have important roles in preventing soil erosion, carbon and nitrogen fixation, and influencing soil hydrology. However, little is known regarding the identity and distribution of the microbial components in the photosynthetic assemblages that form a cohesive biological soil crust (biocrust) in drylands of Europe. In this study, we investigated the cyanobacterial species colonizing biocrusts in three representative dryland ecosystems from the most arid region in Europe (SE Spain) that are characterized by different soil conditions. Isolated cyanobacterial cultures were identified by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic relationship determination, and morphological and ecological habitat assessments. Three well-differentiated groups were identified: heterocystous-cyanobacteria (Nostoc commune, Nostoc calcicola, Tolypothrix distorta and Scytonema hyalinum), which play an important role in N and C cycling in soil; nonheterocystous bundle-forming cyanobacteria (Microcoleus steenstrupii, Trichocoleus desertorum, and Schizothrix cf. calcicola); and narrow filamentous cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbya frigida and Oculatella kazantipica), all of which are essential genera for initial biocrust formation. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of cyanobacterial species composition in biocrusts from important and understudied European habitats, such as the Mediterranean Basin, a hotspot of biodiversity, where these species are keystone pioneer organisms. Keywords: Biological soil crust, Biocrusts, Soil cyanobacteria, Phylogenetic relationships, 16S rRNA gene.
30972Malhotra S.S. & Khan A.A. (1983): Sensitivity to SO2 of various metabolic processes in an epiphytic lichen, Evernia mesomorpha. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 178: 121–130.
In the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha NYL., metabolic proeesses such as photosynthetic CO2-fixation and protein and lipid biosyntheses were found to be very sensitive to SO2. Exposure of lichens to 0.1 ppm of gaseous SO2 for increasing durations produced a progressive reduction in these processes. Protein biosynthesis appeared to be the process most sensitive to SO2. Fumigation of lichen tissues at 0.34 ppm of SO2 for increasing durations caused an increased phytotoxic effect on all three metabolic processes. Such fumigations also inhibited acid phosphatase activity and caused an increase in the sulphur content of the tissues. During an SO2-free period after the fumigations, these metabolic processes recovered partially or completely in liehens exposed to 0.1 ppm SO2 but showed little or no recovery in lichens exposed to 0.34 ppm SO2.
30971Stienen H. (1982): Zuckeranteile in den Zellwänden von vier Kryptogamen [Sugar proof in the cell walls of four cryptogams]. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 177: 629–631.
The sugar contents of the cell walls of 4 nonflowering plants were determined by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after hydrolysis treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. The result differs slightly from results obtained by other workers and show high glucose contents in the 2 mosses, Sphagnum fallax and Pogonatum aloides. Glucoronic-acid and fructose have not been found, while the alga Enteromorpha intestinalis and the lichen Parmelia acetabulum show high hemicellulose contents.
30970Loppi S., Malfatti A., Sani M. & Whitehead N. (1997): Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution. - Geothermics, 26: 535–540.
The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between total β radioactivity in lichens and the distance from geothermal power plants, so that the latter may represent a source of local radionuclide pollution.
30969Loppi S. & Nascimbene J. (1998): Lichen bioindication of air quality in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, Italy). - Geothermics, 27: 295–304.
The results of a lichen bioindication survey of air quality performed in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, central Italy) are reported. On the basis of 153 Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) samplings, an air quality zonal map of the area was drawn. The lowest IAP values were recorded in an area encompassing the geothermal power plants, up to a distance of about 500 m. The overall pattern of rising IAP values with increasing distance from the geothermal power plants suggested that air pollution from the geothermal installations is the main cause of the observed zonation of lichen communities. It is suggested that hydrogen sulphide is the main contaminant responsible for lichen decline around geothermal power plants.
30968Huneck S. & Follmann G. (1970): Mitteilungen über Flechteninhaltsstoffe LXXV: Zur Phytochemie und Chemotaxonomie der Buelliaceae [Notes on Lichen Substances LXXV: On the Phytochemistry and Chemotaxonomy of the Buelliaceae]. - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 161: 191–214.
1. The secondary metabolic products of 73 representatives of the crustose lichen family Buelliaceae (Lecanorales Ascolichenes) have been analyzed microchemically or by thin layer chromatography. 2. The most characteristic constituents are the depside atranorin and the depsidone norstictic acid. 3. The depside lecanoric acid, the depsidone physodalic acid, and the pulvinic acid derivative pulvinic acid lactone were found in this family for the first time. 4. The spectrum of buelliacean substances indicates close relationships to the Physciaceae. 5. Chemosystematically, the sections Diploicia (Buellia) and Placothallia (Rinodina) show the highest developmental level within the family.
30967Adamo P., Vingiani S. & Violante P. (2002): Lichen-rock interactions and bioformation of minerals. - Developments in Soil Science, 28: 377–391.
This chapter discusses the principal effects of lichen growth on mineral substrata and focuses on rock surface disintegration, on mineral etching patterns and decomposition features, and on the formation of biogenic minerals. The chapter discusses the principal effects of lichen growth on mineral substrata with reference to rock surface disintegration, mineral etching patterns, and formation of oxalates, iron oxides, and hydroxides, aluminosilicates, and lichen acid–metal complexes. The release of organic molecules, such as oxalic acid and polyphenolic secondary products of lichen metabolism usually indicated as “lichen acids,” have been proven to play a key role in lichen weathering and neogenesis of poorly and well crystalline biominerals. Both physical and chemical properties of the rock substrate and morphology of the thallus may strongly differentiate extent and assemblage of the lichen–substrate contact zone. Differences in the bio-weathering capability seem to be more related to the physiology of the lichen species involved. Recent progress in the study of the interactions between lichens and their rock substrata mainly relies on the utilization of specialized analytical and instrumental techniques and on the close collaboration among scientists from different research fields.
30966Huneck S. (1974): Sekundärstoffe einiger Stereocaulon-Arten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2313–2314.
Key Words: Stereocaulon spp.; Stereocaulaceae; lichens; lichen substances.
30965Tarvainen O., Markkola A.M. & Strömmer R. (2003): Diversity of macrofungi and plants in Scots pine forests along an urban pollution gradient. - Basic and Applied Ecology, 4: 547–556.
Fungal and plant community structures were studied in mature Scots pine stands along an urban pollution gradient with four zones of pollution intensity around the city of Oulu, northern Finland. For fungi sporocarp inventories and characterization of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) morphotypes were used and for plants coverage analyses were made. Significant differences were found in community structure of macrofungi and plants along the gradient. The number of ECM species and their sporocarp production, especially those of Cortinarius spp., diminished towards the emission sources, whereas the fruiting of saprotrophic fungi increased close to the emission sources. Eight fruiting macrofungal species reflected the differences between the pollution zones. The species decreasing towards the emission sources were almost all ectomycorrhizal (Chroogomphus rutilus, Cortinarius anomalus, C. brunneus, C. gentilis, C. semisanguineus, Suillus variegatus), with only one species, Cantharellula umbonata considered as saprotrophic. In contrast, ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus proved to be pollution-tolerant. The diversity of ECM species was lowest at the most polluted zone while the diversity of plant species increased towards the emission sources. The diversity among ECM morphotypes and saprotrophic species did not differ between the zones. Close to the emission sources slowly growing plant species were displaced by species typical for more nutrient-rich forests, herbs and grasses being more abundant while the number of bryophyte species diminished and lichens were absent. The observed differences in fungal and plant communities are suggested to be results of long-term nitrogen-mediated changes and they support the hypothesis that nitrogen inputs lead to loss of fruiting ECM species.
30964Stordeur R. (1989): V. Wirth, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. Verbreitungsatlas, 1, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Auflage. - Stuttgart (1987), p. 528S, 408 Abb. (Farbfotos), 860 Verbreitungskarten. Leinen mit Schutzumschlag, DM 78,-. - Flora, 182: 126.
book review
30963Hesbacher S., Fröberg L., Baur A., Baur B. & Proksch P. (1996): Chemical variation within and between individuals of the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 24: 603–609.
HPLC-analysis was used to determine the concentrations of the lichen compounds alectoronic acid (depsidon), α-collatolic acid (depsidon) and atranorin (depsid) in the lichenized ascomycete Tephromela atra (syn. Lecanon atra) (Hudson) Hafeliner from limestone walls on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden. In 24 individuals of T. atra sampled on a stone wall, the pre-reproductive and reproductive tissue did not differ in the concentrations of alectoronic acid, collatolic acid and atranorin. The concentrations of the three lichen compounds were inter-correlated in the reproductive tissue, but not in the pre-reproductive tissue. Single individuals of T. atra ranged in area covered from 10.1 to 147.4 cm2 (mean: 38.5 cm2; N=24); 38.6% of this area was pre-reproductive tissue. However, the concentrations of the three lichen compounds were correlated neither with the total area covered by the lichen nor with the percentage of pre-reproductive tissue. This suggests that the concentrations of the lichen compounds do not change with increasing size (age) of the lichen. Analysis of specimens of T. atra from eight localities revealed a significant variation in lichen compounds (range between localities: alectoronic acid 0.60–3.26 μg/mg lichen dry weight (DW); collatolic acid 2.14–11.59 μg/mg lichen DW; atranorin 0.58–4.16 μg/mg lichen DW). The level of grazing observed in the lichens differed significantly among localities. However, no correlations between the concentrations of the three lichen compounds and the grazing damage to the lichens were found.
30962Stordeur R. (1993): Flechten von Nord- und Mitteleuropa – Ein Bestimmungsbuch., R. Moberg, I. Holmåsen, Ute Jülich (Ed.), G. Fischer, Stuttgart; Jena; New York (1992), p. 237, Übersetzt von, 350 Abb. (überwiegend Farbfotos), 300 Verbreitungskarten. Glanzkarton, DM 78,-. ISBN 3-437-20471-8. - Flora, 188: 237–238.
book review
30961Stordeur R. (1997): Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 und 2, 2. Auflage, V. Wirth, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (1995), 1006 S., 555 Farbfotos, 55 Schwarzweißfotos und Zeichnungen, 996 Verbreitungskarten. Leinen mit Schutzumschlag, DM 148, ISBN: 3-8001-3325-3. - Flora, 192: 29–30.
book review
30960Huneck S. & Schreiber K. (1974): Die sekundärstoffe von einigen europäischen und indischen Flechten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2315–2316.
Key Words: Lichens; lichen substances.
30959Huneck S. (1974): Sekundärstoffe einiger amerikanischer Flechten. - Phytochemistry, 13: 2872–2873.
Key Words: Lichens, Iichen substances, usnic acid, barbatic acid, lecomic acid, terpenoids.
30958Friedl T. (1993): New aspects of the reproduction by autospores in the lichen alga Trebouxia (Microthamniales, Chlorophyta). - Archiv für Protistenkunde, 143: 153–161.
Two different “zoospore to zoospore” cycles — named cell cycle A and cell cycle B - have been found in Trebouxia by starting cultures of different species from zoospores and following the further developmental stages under identical culture conditions. In cell cycle A the first cell divisions after zoospore settlement result in an autosporangium with few (4–32) adhering autospores (tetrads or autospore packages) and then zoosporangia and autosporangia with numerous (>32) small autospores are formed, adhering together with other cells into an autospore package. In cell cycle B, however, the zoospores first develop into almost completely differentiated vegetative cells which are transformed directly into zoosporangia or autosporangia with numerous small autospores. Autospore packages are not formed in cell cycle B. It is concluded that these differences in the reproduction by autospores are important characters for the identification of Trebouxia species, but that they do not justify separation of the genus into two genera or subgenera. Keywords: Autosporulation; Cell cycle; Lichens; Trebouxia.
30957Feige G.B. (1969): Stoffwechselphysiologische Untersuchungen an der tropischen Basidiolichene Cora pavonia (Sw.) Fr.. - Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung, 160: 169–180.
basidiolichens
30956Poelt J. & Vězda A. (1969): Über Bau und systematische Stellung der Flechtengattung Solorinella. - Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung, 158: 223–231.
The soil-lichen Solorinella asteriscus differs very much from the Peltigeraceae, with them it has been ranked till now, among other things because of the morphology of apothecia, asci and paraphyses. On the contrary it corresponds extensively with some representatives of the Gyalectaceae sensu ZAHLBR., particularly with the genus Gyalidea, in the neighbourhood of which it should be placed in future. The so-called thallus of Solorinella, formed as star-shaped lobes, is an exciple modified and stretched by the influence of algae. The strata of algae and the exciple are built up by the same complexus of hyphae. Solorinella forms another, in details diverging but nevertheless comparable example for the assumption, that the corticate so-called thallus of the foliose lichens corresponds to a very modified exciple.
30955Kappen L., Meyer M. & Bölter M. (1990): Ecological and physiological investigations in continental Antarctic cryptogams: I. Vegetation pattern and its relation to snow cover on a hill near Casey Station, Wilkes Land. - Flora, 184: 209–220.
The vegetation of the summit region of a small ice:free hill in the inner part of the east-Antarctic Bailey Peninsula, Windmill Islands, was recorded by 105 relevés along various transects. It was analysed by the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method, by a divisive polythetic procedure and tested by an ordination analysis. An epipetric Usnea sphacelata- and a Rinodina olivaceobrunnea-moss turf community were described as distinct communities and additionally a transient community. The vegetation is highly dependent on the extension and duration of a shallow snow cover, because snow is the main water source for the poikilohydrous cryptogams. This was shown by recording regularly the changes of snow cover in 5 quadrats of the summit region. The photophilous, wind- exposed vegetation of this hill resembles ecologically that of high arctic and alpine regions. The dominance of Neuropogon species is characteristic of the Antarctic and also the Andine region, in equivalent arctic-alpine communities Umbilicaria species are the most prominent element. The epibryic and epigeic Rinodina olivaceobrunnea-moss turf community has no identical counterpart in the arctic and alpine region.
30954Garty J. & Galun M. (1974): Selectivity in lichen-substrate relationships. - Flora, 163: 530–534.
The moisture retention capacity of eigth different types of saxicolous lichen substrates from the Negev Desert, was measured. It was shown that there is a correlation between the establishment of the lichens Ramalina maciformis, Buellia canescens, B. sorediosa and Caloplaca ehrenbergii, and the moisture retention capacity values of the substrates. The importance of the physical properties of the substrate as factor in the lichen-substrate association are discussed.
30953Veste M., Littmann T., Friedrich H. & Breckle S.-W. (2001): Microclimatic boundary conditions for activity of soil lichen crusts in sand dunes of the north-western Negev desert, Israel. - Flora, 196: 465–474.
Photosynthetic activity of soil crust lichens was thoroughly investigated. Its interrelations with microclimatic boundary conditions was measured during two field experiments in the central part of the sand dune field in the north-western Negev Desert. After nocturnal rainfall the lichens were active well until noon when they dried out finally. However, over most of the year dewfall seems to be the primary controlling factor for activation as in other lichen communities. The microclimatic conditions for activity were determined in detail. It was found that after sunset terrestrial radiation leads to a progressive development of a stable air layer above ground accompanied by decreasing temperatures and wind speed. Well before midnight dewpoint temperature differences drop below 1.0 K and leaf wetness sensors indicate the formation of dew. It is exactly in this situation when lichen activity starts. Maximum activity, however, is reached a few hours later when cumulative dewfall exceeds 0.1 mm at dewpoint temperature differences around 0 K. In nights with advective labilization and subsequent dewfall evaporation, no lichen activity was observed. Even a heavy foggy night did not lead to any activity at the soil surface.
30952Von Hurka H. & Winkler S. (1973): Statistische Analyse der rindenbewohnenden Flechtenvegetation einer Allee Tübingens. - Flora, 162: 61–80.
1. The bark-inhabiting lichen vegetation of maple trees (Acer platanoides) in the Steinlachallee (tree-lined road) in Tübingen comprises 14 species (table 1). 2. Some species occur more frequently together than random deviation suggests (significance level 5 %). They thus form communities whose composition alters with changing exposure. No same community is found at the different exposure zones (table 2 and fig. 3). 3. In certain cases the presence or abscence of lichen species along the Steinlachallee in centrifugal direction shows significant gradients (table 3). 4. Degree of lichen cover generally changes with exposure and distance from the city centre (table 4, fig. 4). 5. However, individual species are influenced differently by the two variables (fig. 10 and 11). Consequently, the significance of a particular species changes, as far as the cover of a given tree is concerned (fig. 6—9). 6. The ecological optimum of some species changes with exposure and their position in the transect, while other species keep their ecological optima constant independent of exposure and/or position in the transect (table 6, fig. 10, 11). 7. From this, conclusions can be drawn about the physiological optima and the competitive force of the participating species. In general, crustose lichens seem to displace foliose lichens from their physiological optima. 8. The apparent influence on the lichen vegetation is to a greater extent attributed to the city climate than to air pollution.
30951Lange O.L., Beyschlag W., Meyer A. & Tenhunen J.D. (1984): Determination of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field - a method for measurement of light response curves at saturating CO2 concentration. - Flora, 175: 283–293.
Reproducible determination of the photosynthetic capacity of lichens is desirable in order to identify patterns of natural change in lichen metabolic activity and in order to effectively use lichens as bioindicators to monitor influences of air pollution. However, lichen photosynthetic CO2 exchange is highly dependent on the actual thallus water content, and experimental control of the state of hydration is difficult. At superoptimal water content and under natural ambient CO2 conditions, net photosynthetic rates are low due to large CO2 diffusion resistance in the thallus. However, high levels of external CO2 can establish saturating CO2 partial pressure at the sites of carboxylation. Thus at high CO2, one obtains a constant and reproducible photosynthetic response with lichens over a large range in high thallus water content. A newly developed, portable minicuvette system is described which allows quick and reliable determination of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field. Small, fully water saturated thallus samples (0.15 to 0.3 g dry mass) are included in a climatized chamber with attached light source. Carbon dioxide exchange is measured by means of an infrared gas analyzer at saturating external CO2 concentration (2,500 ppm) and under defined light and temperature conditions. Light response curves at constant temperature are demonstrated for several epiphytic lichen species. Several types of information, such as the maximal photosynthetic rate, quantum utilization efficiency, and light compensation point can be obtained from these measurements. We suggest that such parameters can be used to assess changes in lichen photosynthetic activity, for instance with respect to impact of pollutants. When combined with measurements of actual net photosynthesis rates obtained in time courses, the described methods will also help us to better understand on a physiological basis the behavior of lichens in their natural habitat.
30950Kauppi M. (1976): Fruticose lichen transplant technique for air pollution experiments. - Flora, 165: 407–414.
Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouz. & Vězda lichens were transplanted into small plastic containers and placed in the area surrounding a chemical factory and in built-up areas in Oulu, Northern Finland. The changes occasioned in the lichens by the effects of air pollution were determined under the microscope, by photography, by measuring their net assimilation rate (URAS-2), chlorophyll content, pH and electrical conductivity, and by various chemical analyses. The results obtained from two autumn series of experiments are presented here. The lichens reacted fairly sharply to pollutants in the air, in a manner reflecting the qualitative differences between the town environment and the fertilizer factory as sources of pollution. The technique described here is compared with transplants of corticolous lichens. It seems that fruticose lichens may be successfully used as pollution indicators provided that the exposure period is short, only a few months.
30949Von Schulze E.D. & Lange O.L. (1968): CO2 -Gaswechsel der Flechte Hypogymnia physodes bei tiefen Temperaturen im Freiland [Measurements of the CO2-gas-exchange of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes at low temperatures in the field]. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 158: 180–184.
During late winter 1968 (March) the CO2-gas-exchange of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes was measured in its natural habitat under natural conditions as well as under controlled temperature conditions. Though temperature did not increase above 4°C, temporary it was only 0 °C, and light intensity was just low because of snow showers, the net photosynthesis of the lichen was positive all day long. Daily CO2-uptake was 22 mg • dm−2 (referred to thallus surface). Maximum rate of CO2-net-photosynthesis was 3.8 mg CO2 • dm−2 • h−1 • Even at - 6°C, 0.44 mg CO2 • dm−2• h−1 were assimilated. The results confirm the results found in the laboratory about the photosynthetic activity of lichens at low temperatures. Comparing the rate of photosynthesis of Hypogymnia at temperatures near and below freezing with the photosynthetic activity of higher plants it shows up that these rates might be ecologically rather important for the annual CO2-balance.
30948Sembdner G. (1958): Standortseinflüsse auf die morphologische und anatomische Ausgestaltung bei einigen Cladonia-Arten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 145: 589–610.
30947Schuster G. (1993): Development of adventive thalli in Umbilacaria Hoffm.. - Flora, 187: 201–207.
Species of Umbilicaria developed adventive lobes from the surface of rhizomorphs after the trapping of algae. Secondary lobes were formed mainly in older thalli and were thought to be important for propagation. Regeneration from the base of the umbilicus probably accounted important for the recolonization of the original site and for maintenance of the population.
30946Kappen L., Lange O.L., Schulze E.-D., Evenari M. & Buschbom U. (1979): Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert: VI. Annual course of the photosynthetic production of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory. - Flora, 168: 85–108.
Diurnal courses oflight, temperatures, water content, and CO2 exchange of the thalli of Ramalina maciformis were measured in its natural habitat in the Negev desert from March to September 1971. The measurements of water content of the lichen thalli by means of a Hiltner dew balance were extended over a period of about two years. Water content was the most prominent factor controlling the CO2-gas exchange of the lichen. The different types of water uptake by rain-, dew-, or water-vapour moistening and the corresponding daily courses of net photosynthesis are presented. The experimental data, formed the basis of a correlation model for net photosynthesis of R. maciformis by means of which the daily photosynthetic production due to dew and water-vapour uptake was calculated for a, whole year according to the registrations of the thallus water contents, temperatures of a neighbouring weather station, and photoperiod. The net photosynthesis due to rain-water imbibition and the respiration during the night were separately calculated. The photosynthetic CO2 gain which was yielded by dew on c. 200 days was as high as that calculated for the 29 rain days of the extremely rainy annual period of 1971/72. In years with precipitation near the long term average, as was the subsequent period 1972/73, rain induced production of R. maciformis was only 2/3 of that yielded by dewfall and may be only a small fraction in dry years, whereas dewfall maintains almost always its regular occurrence. Rainfall in the Negev, although being very effective for high photosynthetic productivity, is too scarce to provide life of R. maciformis. The existence of many lichens in the Negev is only possible because of the high frequency and regularity of dew falls. It is discussed whether the calculated amount of the annual photosynthetic gain is representative for the natural production and growth.
30945Nash T.H. III., Moser T.J., Bertke C.C., Link S.O., Sigal L.L., White S.L. & Fox C.A. (1982): Photosynthetic patterns of Sonoran Desert lichens I. Environmental considerations and preliminary field measurements. - Flora, 172: 335–345.
In comparison to the Negev Desert environment, where extensive desert lichen photosynthetic and productivity studies have been conducted, the environment of the interior Sonoran Desert at Phoenix, Arizona, is shown to be much less favorable for lichen photosynthetic activity. Lack of dewfall events is inferred to be the major difference, as the estimated dewfall frequency of 12 d per year is only 6 % of the number of days when dewfall occurs at Avdat, Israel. Favorable moisture periods for lichen photosynthesis are shown to be largely restricted to the winter period when temperatures are cool. The occurrence of dewfall and periods with low vapor pressure deficits is generally coupled with the occurrence of winter rainfall periods. Fog, a factor responsible for luxuriant lichen communities in some maritime, arid environments, is shown to be almost non-existent at Phoenix. Preliminary photosynthetic measurements over 28 d confirmed that days with photosynthetic activity are tightly coupled with precipitation events. Moisture conditions favorable for photosynthetic activity may persist for a day or two after precipitation events. Because of the marked differences in moisture conditions and in lichen biomass estimates between the Negev and the interior Sonoran Desert, it is inferred that lichen productivity must be much lower at the Sonoran Desert site.
30944Kappen L. & Lange O.L. (1972): Die Kälteresistenz einiger Makrolichenen [The cold resistance of some macrolichens]. - Flora, 161: 1–29.
Cold resistance of several lichen species from different geographical provenances was determined. For indication of their vitality the CO2-gas exchange of the thalli was analysed in an infrared gas analyser (URAS, Hartmann & Braun) before and repeatedly, within 2 to 5 weeks, after the cold treatment. The thalli were cooled down to − 10°C, − 20°C, − 30°C, − 50°C and to the temperatures of solid CO2 (− 78°C) and liquid N (− 196°C) with a slow gradient (stepwise) and rapidly (direct) and vice versa rewarmed to + 10°C, the temperature of their pre- and postculture. It was attempted to distinguish between the phycobiont’s and the mycobiont’s responses to the cold treatment. As could be concluded from the data most of the CO2-output was due to the mycobiont. In light this CO2-output was decreased down to 48% in isolated mycobionts of Cladonia rangiferina and to 69% in the medulla of Lobaria pulmonaria. In order to calculate a reasonable value for gross photosynthesis of the phycobiont, the amount of CO2-output in light was supposed to be generally 50% of the dark respiration. By this calculation of gross photosynthesis one can prevent the appearence of a non-existing recovery of the thalli. As to their respiration response, the 8 tested lichens, exept Umbilicaria vellea, tolerated a stepwise cold treatment to − 196°C and a rapid one to − 78°C. As indicated by the photosynthesis even 5 lichens tolerated a stepwise cold treatment to − 196°C (cf. table 3). This more sensitive reaction of the phycobiont determines the strength of the symbiosis. The cold sensitivity of Roccella fucoides seems to determine its geographical distribution and habitats. Umbilicaria vellea was tender in summer and highly resistant in winter, which could be related to its habitats. A great number of lichens from Central Europe, the Mediterranean, New Zealand, and the Negev Desert, Israel tolerated cold treatments which can never be expected in these areas. The kind of cold injury in highly resistant species was tested by varying the conditions of cooling and rewarming. It could be concluded that rapid cooling induced vitrification of water in the cells. If the samples were rewarmed fast enough no injury occurred, if rewarming allowed a recrystallisation of ice the photosynthesis and respiration of the thalli ceased. Cold injury conclusively may only occur, when ice is formed within the cells. With exception of a few species the lichens can be characterized by an extraordinary high resistance to frost. Actually most of the tested lichens tolerated low temperatures which do not occur in any natural habitat at all. So within this respect their worldwide distribution is not limited.
30943Wunder J. & Möseler B.M. (1996): Kaltluftströme auf Basaltblockhalden und ihre Auswirkung auf Mikroklima und Vegetation [Cold airstreams on slopes of basaltic rocks and their influence on microclimate and vegetation]. - Flora, 191: 335–344.
Measurements of the microclimate on slopes with extensive basaltic blocks reveal cold airstreams coming out of the ground. These airstreams caused by perennial underground ice influence the herbaceous, bryophytic and lichenophytic vegetation by locally inverting the temperature of the air close to the ground surface. In accordance to these ecological characteristics the Betulo-carpaticae-Sorbetum aucupariae appears and the woodless parts of the slope are characterized by not competitive lichens and bryophytes. Key words: Microclimate; cold airstreams; basaltic blocks; underground ice; vegetation ecology.
30942Kauppi M. & Mikkonen A. (1980): Floristic versus single species analysis in the use of epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution in a boreal forest region, northern Finland. - Flora, 169: 255–281.
The influence of air pollution from an iron and steel works upon the surrounding vegetation is studied by two parallel methods, one based on the epiphytic lichen flora on pines, and the other on measurements of certain reactions of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L). Nyl. (p H, conductivity, and the chlorophyll, total S and iron content of the thallus, and the reactions of the algal cell component). Comparison of the results suggests that a clear picture of the nature and spread of air pollution may still be obtained from morphological examinations and various measured parameters in a single commonly occurring lichen species. This method is especially practical in the boreal coni ferous zone, where the epiphytic lichen vegetation is limited.
30941Stocker O. (1975): Prinzipien der Flechtensymbiose [Principles of lichen symbiosis]. - Flora, 164: 359–376.
Lichen symbiosis is based and limited on the genetical constitution and the physiological balance of power of the symbionts. On the whole it may be characterized as “rent symbiosis”.
30940Zotz G. & Winter K. (1994): Photosynthesis and carbon gain of the lichen, Leptogium azureum, in a lowland tropical forest. - Flora, 189: 179–186.
CO2 gas exchange and microclimatic conditions of Leptogium azureum (Sw. ex Ach.) Mont., a foliose lichen, were investigated in the lowland tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Thalli growing epiphytically in the forest canopy or epilithically on boulders in the understory were studied. Under the prevailing temperature and humidity conditions, thallus water contents were generally high during the night, resulting in high rates of respiration. Daytime net CO2 uptake was restricted by low light in the understory or by temporary reduction of thallus water content in the canopy. As a consequence, carbon balances were negative on many days. The results of these first field measurements of the CO2 gas exchange of a tropical lichen support the notion that the low abundance of macro lichens in tropical lowland forests is mainly caused by an unfavourable combination of high temperature and low light. Keywords: Leptogium azureum; lowland rain forest; carbon balance; lichen.
30939Lange O.L., Belnap J., Reichenberger H. & Meyer A. (1997): Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange. - Flora, 192: 1–15.
Biotic soil crusts are a worldwide phenomenon in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Metabolic activity of the poikilohydric organisms found in these crusts is dominated by quick and drastic changes in moisture availability and long periods of drought. Under controlled conditions, we studied the role of water content on photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange of three green algal soil crust lichens from a desert site in southern Utah (USA): Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch, Psora cerebriformis W. Weber, and Squamarina lentigera (Weber) Poelt. Photosynthetic metabolism is activated by extremely small amounts of moisture; lower compensation values for net photosynthesis (NP) are reached between 0.05 and 0.27 mm of precipitation equivalent. Thus, the lichens can use very low degrees of hydration for carbon gain. Maximal NP occurs between 0.39 and 0.94 mm precipitation equivalent, and area-related rates equal 2.6–5.2 μmol CO2 m−2s−1. All three tested species show ‘sun plant’ features, including high light requirements for CO2 exchange compensation and for NP saturation. Diploschistes diacapsis maintains high rates of NP at full water saturation. In contrast, suprasaturated thalli of the other two species show a strong depression in NP which can be removed or reduced by increased external CO2 concentration. Consequently, this depression is most probably caused by increased thallus diffusive resistances due to pathway blockage by water. This depression will greatly limit carbon gain of these species in the field after heavy rain. It occurs at all temperatures of ecological relevance and also under conditions of low light. However, maximum water holding capacity of P. cerebriformis and S. lentigera is higher than that of D. diacapsis. This could mean that periods of hydration favorable for metabolic activity for those two species last longer than those of D. diacapsis. This might compensate for their lower rates of NP during suprasaturation. Thus, two different strategies might have developed for lichen existence in the specific and extreme arid soil crust habitat. Data about habitat conditions for the different lichen species are needed in order to test this hypothesis and to allow interpretation and prediction of perfonnance of these soil crust lichens in nature.
30938Leisner J.M.R., Bilger W. & Lange O.L. (1996): Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens under field conditions: I. Seasonal patterns of photochemical activity and the occurrence of photosystem II inhibition. - Flora, 191: 261–273.
Photosystem (PS) II fluorescence of the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens, together with microclimate parameters (light, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), was recorded over a complete year (September 1992 - August 1993). Measurements were made on thalli at two quasi-natural growing sites in a xerothermic steppe formation in the Botanical Garden, Würzburg. The sites spanned the natural habitat range for the species, one being partly shaded whilst we increased exposure at the other by removing the steppe canopy. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were automatically determined at 20 minute intervals using a PAM-2000 fluorometer. From the fluorescence data, metabolically active phases of the poikilohydrous lichen could clearly be distinguished from dormancy. In the majority of cases, dormancy could be attributed to desiccation. During winter, frost inhibited activity completely at temperatures below −5°C. Metabolic activity of the lichen occurred over a wide range of temperatures and light conditions including periods of very high light when photoinhibitory damage might have been expected. However, values of the optimal quantum efficiency of PS II (determined under low light at dawn) showed no depression (photoinhibition) except when metabolic activity of the lichen had been severely curtailed by frost and/or extended drought. The inhibition was reversed after even brief periods of normal metabolic activity. Peltigera rufescens, therefore, seemed to be well adapted to its natural environment and showed little photoinhibition as long as it frequently hydrated and became metabolically active.
30937Lange O.L., Büdel B., Meyer A., Zellner H. & Zotz G. (2000): Lichen carbon gain under tropical conditions : water relations and CO2 exchange of three Leptogium species of a lower montane rainforest in Panama. - Flora, 195: 172–190.
Diel time courses of microclimate, hydration, and CO2 exchange of Leptogium azureum, L. cyanescens and L. phyllocarpum (homoiomerous cyanolichens) were measured under quasi-natural conditions at a forest edge of a lower montane, tropical rainforest (Panama). In addition, responses to experimentally controlled water content (WC), photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and temperature were studied for L. phyllocarpum. Performance of the Leptogium species was compared with two other, but heteromerous, cyanolichens from the same site and treated in earlier publications (Dictyonema glabratum, Sticta tomentosa). Net photosynthesis (NP) of L. phyllocarpum was adapted to high temperatures with an upper temperature compensation point well above 40°e. The light saturation of NP was highly dependent on WC and occurred at PPFD levels between 100 and 600 εmol m−2s−1. Light compensation point was about 20 Ilmol m−2s−1 and increased with decreasing We. All three Leptogium species suffered from a strong depression of NP at suprasaturating WC, which reduced CO2 assimilation by 55 to more than 80%, compared to the maximum. Natural NP was controlled by the interplay of thallus hydration and radiation. In contrast to the heteromerous species, high water holding capacity of the gelatinous lichens, especially of L. phyllocarpum, shortened the periods of inactivity through desiccation, thus essentially extending the daily time span for photosynthetic activity. However, high WC reduced the rates of CO2 fixation. A rough estimate for L. azureum reveals that net photosynthetic carbon gain would be increased by about one third in the absence of suprasaturation depression. In spite of these limitations, average daily net photosynthetic carbon gain of mature thalli of all three Leptogium species was relatively high [between 6.2 and 9 mgC (gC)−1d−1, as related to thallus carbon content]. However, a very large portion of assimilated carbon - on average 60 to 90% - was lost again through nocturnal respiration which was stimulated by high night temperatures of the continuously moist thalli. The resulting diel carbon balance amounted from 0.6 to 3.6 mgC (gC)−1d−1. Abundance of Leptogium species and of other macrolichens was high in the lower montane forest, it was low in warmer lowland rainforests of the same area. Based upon a literature review for lichens under different climate conditions the existing hypothesis is discussed to what extend this phenomenon might be explained through negative carbon balances due to temperature-induced increases in nocturnal respiration.
30936Jahns H.M. & Ott S. (1983): Das Mikroklima dicht benachbarter Flechtenstandorte [The microclimate of adjacent lichen habitats]. - Flora, 173: 183–222.
The microclimate of 5 lichen habitats is recorded for several days in the summer and in the autumn of 1980. The locations are situated inside a very small area, but each habitat is inhabited by one or 2 lichen species only. The intensity of light, temperature of air and of lichens, relative humidity, watercontent of the thalli and wind are measured in situ. The interaction of numerous influences is described and discussed. Distinct microclimatic differences are observed, which can explain the distributional patterns of the lichen species in the area.
30935Feige G.B., Lumbsch H.T. & Schmitz K.E. (1993): Die Ausbildung eines Zentralstranges in der Flechtenfamilie Roccellaceae (Opegraphales; Ascomycotina): Anatomische Untersuchungen an Simonyella variegata) [The formation ora central cord in the lichen family Roccellaceae (Opegraphales; Ascomycotina): Anatomical studies on Simonyella variegata]. - Flora, 187: 159–167.
The development of the central cord in Simonyella variegata (Roccellaceae) is studied. The central cord is built of medullary hyphae, which are parallel arranged and possess heavily swollen walls. The hyphae are embedded in a gelatinous, melanized matrix. The thallus tips do not have a central cord. The importance of the central cord is shortly discussed. The cord is compared with similar structures in other lichens.
30934Hahn S.C., Tenhunen J.D., Popp P.W., Meyer A. & Lange O.L. (1993): Upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska: Diurnal CO2 exchange patterns of characteristic lichen species. - Flora, 188: 125–143.
CO2 exchange, water content, and microclimate conditions were observed for seven characteristic lichen species in their natural habitat within upland tundra communities of northern Alaska. Diurnal courses of lichen gas exchange response were recorded over five-day periods during the arctic summer and fall (from July to early September 1988 and 1989). Water availability is the environmental factor of foremost importance in determining rates of primary production. Water sources were rain, fog, and dew fall, as well as high air humidity, which alone could reactivate most of the green algal species after desiccation. Despite high variability in environmental conditions, certain patterns in the diurnal course of thallus hydration occurred repeatedly, so that five different weather types were defined within which gas exchange performance was predictable. Even short periods of favourable hydration were used by lichens for positive net photosynthesis (NP). There was no indication of adverse consequences of “resaturation respiration”. Even after a dry period of 3 days, sudden rehydration resulted in carbon gain without delay. For short periods of time, the combinations of water content, temperature and light imposed on the lichens enables high rates of NP. Individual species differed greatly in their maximal NP rate, which correlated with chlorophyll and nitrogen content. At favourable times in the field, observed NP rates approached the maximum capacity found in laboratory experiments at natural ambient CO2. Often with sufficient hydration, carbon gain was limited by light. CO2 exchange became negative even during daylight hours due to the effects of fog and clouds with light below compensation levels. Reduced but still positive rates of NP were observed with snow and with frozen lichens. In order to draw general conclusions about activity over the summer season, the time was calculated for a characteristic set of sampling days during which thalli were inactivated due to dehydration (no CO2 exchange measurable), during which they photosynthetically fixed CO2, and during which CO2 was released. The thalli were inactivated on the average 42.5 % of the time. Species-specific differences with respect to the total period of dehydration were surprisingly small (from 39.0% forStereocaulon alpinum to 45.5 % for Cetraria cucullata). Thus, growth-form specific morphology and anatomy of the samples, which were exposed side-by-side at the same site did not result in large differences in active phases. On the other hand, differences in physiological traits between species result in varying division of active phases with respect to positive and negative NP. For example, Dactylina arctica photosynthesized 1.36 times longer than Peltigera malacea. Other traits tend to offset the negative effect of long periods with respiratory CO2 release. As a result, the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera malacea with the shortest total period of positive NP was, nevertheless, the most productive species due to its high photosynthetic capacity. Our field observations strengthen the viewpoint that studies of lichen physiological differentiation are essential for understanding species autecology and that approaches based on interpretation of morphological attributes may sometimes be exaggerated in their importance.
30933Guttenberger H., Hainzl M., Grill D. & Türk R. (1991): Altitude dependence of thiol content of lichens. - Flora, 185: 201–205.
The water soluble thiol (SH) content of lichens and its altitude dependence was investigated using an altitude profile of two lichen species. Further lichen species were investigated at different elevations for their SH-content. The poicilohydric lichens show a rise in SH-content with increasing altitude to a maximum between 1400–1600 m above sea level. At higher altitudes the content of SH declines again with increasing elevation.
30932Kidron G.J. (2000): Dew moisture regime of endolithic and epilithic lichens inhabiting limestone cobbles and rock outcrops, Negev Highlands, Israel. - Flora , 195: 146–153.
Endolithic and epilithic lichens proliferate on calcareous cobbles and rock outcrops in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Whereas epilithic lichens predominate in shaded mesohabitats, extensively covering rock outcrops, endolithic lichens proliferate on loose cobbles. Endolithic lichens were thought to predominate in habitats having a poor dew regime. Dew measurements were carried out at habitats of endolithic and epilithic lichens. The measurements took place on loose and partially embedded cobbles with 90–100% of endolithic lichen cover, and on rock outcrops inhabited by epilithic lichens (75-90% cover). In addition, independent dew measurements were carried out with the Plate Cloth Method (CPM). A total of 60 days of measurements was performed. Average daily dew amount as obtained by the CPM was 0.20 mm, as compared to 0.18 mm obtained on the loose cobbles, 0.09 mm obtained by the partially embedded cobbles and 0.04–0.08 mm obtained on the bedrock surfaces. The dew amounts obtained on the cobbles were significantly higher than those obtained on the bedrock surfaces (paired t-test, p < 0.001). Thus, although exposed to the first sun beams during the early morning hours, cobbles, due to their excessive heat loss and subsequent higher cooling rates, form a mesic microhabitat (as far as dew amount is concerned) within an unshaded and hence xeric (as far as dew duration is concerned) mesohabitat. The results point out that endolithic lichens are not necessarily adapted to a poor dew regime. The advantage of the endolithic habitat in light of the present findings is discussed.
30931Redon J. & Lange O.L. (1983): Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen „Nebeloase“ (Fray Jorge) I. Vegetationskundliche Gliederung und Standortsbedingungen [Epiphytic lichens in the region of a Chilean “Fog oasis” (Fray Jorge) I. Distributional patterns and habitat conditions]. - Flora, 174: 213–243.
Fog formation occurs frequently along the coast of nothern Chile. The fog envelopes the slopes and the summit of the coastal ranges. Water condenses in this zone and effects the development of an usually lush vegetation known as a fog oasis in this arid or semi-arid environment. In the Fray Jorge National Park, the fog-dependent vegetation consists of evergreen forests which are surrounded by thorn scrub and succulents. Lichens play an important role in these habitats. They cover the phanerophytes of the different zones of the coastal area as epiphytic vegetation and have both high biomass and species diversity. The objective of the first part of this work was a description of the epiphytic lichen vegetation for a selected, representative area of about 10 km2 of the Fray Jorge National Park and to study the environmental relationships of these lichens with special emphasis on their water relations. Redon (1982) described 54 different epiphytic lichen species for this area. A phytosociological study resulted in the definition of 2 lichen-associations which are characterized by species combinations, dominant life forms, and species diversity. The Oropogonetum loxensis lichen community grows on shrubs and trees in the zone which is directly affected by persistent fog. On the other hand, the Ramalinetum cactacearum lichen community covers the shrubs in the region below the fog belt. Along a transect which streched from the drier inland depression without fog influence to the top of the coastal range where there is regular fog formation, the changes in the lichen vegetation and the gradation between the 2 communities were characterized. At the habitats of the Oropogonetum and the Ramalinetum, diurnal courses of light intensity, air temperature, air humidity and lichen thallus temperature were measured during characteristic wheather conditions in the different seasons throughout the year. Lichen water content of typical, selected species was followed at the same time by weighing of samples. The species of the Oropogonetum are often thoroughly moistened during the night by condensing fog which forms droplets on the thalli. In the early morning hours, maximum water contents of the lichens up to 153 and 172 % (by dry weight) respectively were measured. After disappearance of the fog during the late morning hours, the thalli increasingly dry out as temperatures increase and air humidity is decreased. Thallus water content reaches a minimum of about 16 % in the early afternoon. In contrast, water relations of the species of the Ramalinetum are much more unfavourable. Moistening by liquid water seems to be restricted to very infrequent dew condensation and to the few rain events in winter (situations, which were not observed during this study in the field). The habitats of the Ramalinetum are not reached by the fog. However, fog formation in the higher altitudes of the coastal ranges is correlated with a substantial increase in air humidity in the depression where the Ramalinetum occurs. The lichen thalli are able to absorb this water vapor from the air even though no condensation occurs. Thus, in the early morning hours after nights with high air humidity, hydration of the species of the Ramalinetum increases, and water contents up to about 37 % were measurable. Subsequently the thalli dry out again and reach their minimum water content after noon, similar to the lichens of the Oropogonetum. Water exchange between lichens and air seems to take place so quickly, that the thalli are almost in equilibrium with the water potential of the ambient air, at least during the time periods of low solar radiation before noon. The same is the case for the species of the Oropogonetum on days without fog formation but with high air humidity. In a second communication of this series, the importance of the habitat conditions for the photo-synthetic primary production of the lichens will be assessed.
30930Stocker O. (1927): Physiologische und ökologische Untersuchungen an Laub- und Strauchflechten. Ein Beitrag zur experimentellen Ökologie und Geographie der Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung , 121: 334–415.
30929Lange O.L., Schulze E.-D. & Koch W. (1970): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste: III. CO2-Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt von Krusten- und Blattflechten am natürlichen Standort während der sommerlichen Trockenperiode [Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert: III. CO2 gas exchange and water relations of crustose and foliose lichens in their natural habitat during the summer dry period]. - Flora, 159: 529–538.
CO2 gas exchange and water relations of crustose and foliose lichens were examined under natural conditions at the end of the dry period in their highland habitat of the Central Negev Desert: Caloplaca ehrenbergii (Muell. Arg.) A. Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. aurantia Poelt, Lecanora farinosa (Flk.) Nyl., Xanthoria isidioidea (Beltr.) R et Galun, Squamarina cf. crassa (Huds.) Poelt, Diploschistes steppicus Reichert and endolithic lichens inside limestone. Similar to the behaviour of the fruticose species Ramalina maciformis and Teloschistes lacunosus (Part II), the other life forms are also moistened sufficiently, as a result of nightly dew-fall, that an apparent photosynthetic CO2 uptake is possible for a period of several hours following sunrise. Maximum rates of photosynthesis are peak values compared with known values from field measurements of lichens from other climatic regions. They reach the order of the highest rates of CO2 assimilation of wild phanerogams, measured at the same time in the same habitat. Also the crustose and the foliose lichens are capable of absorbing enough water vapour in absence of dew condensation from the surrounding moist air at night so as to permit a short period of photosynthetic activity during the morning.
30928Hahn S., Speer D., Meyer A. & Lange O.L. (1989): Photosynthetische Primärproduktion von epigäischen Flechten im „Mainfränkischen Trockenrasen”: I. Tagesläufe von Mikroklima, Wassergehalt und CO2-Gaswechsel zu den verschiedenen Jahreszeiten) [Photosynthetic primary production of epigean lichens growing in local xerothermic steppe formations in Franconia: I. Diurnal time courses of microclimate, water content and CO2 exchange at different seasons]. - Flora, 182: 313–339.
Microclimate, water content and CO2 exchange were investigated in three lichen species from the „Mainfrankischen Trockenrasen” in their natural environment (Franconia, Northern Bavaria). The research site, located on top of the bluffs of the Main river valley, is in an area of limestone formations. The rare xerothermic vegetation unit, a local steppe formation (Xerobromion sward), naturally contains a high proportion of cryptogams. The measurements were taken throughout the highly active part of the year between April and November. Climatic conditions and water contents were simultaneously recorded, while CO2 exchange was measured during the light period. For each season of the year there were specific cases of weather conditions which could be classified into uniform types, and the related responses in net photosynthesis and water status of the lichens are described in schemes and diurnal courses. Further results, as general light and water content dependent photosynthesis curves derived from the measured parameter, and seasonally shifting photosynthesis responses which occurred in some species, are discussed.
30927Goebel K. (1926): Morphologische und biologische Bemerkungen: 32. Induzierte Dorsiventralität bei Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 121: 177–188.
30926Ensgraber A. (1954): Über den Einfluß der Antrocknung auf die Assimilation und Atmung von Moosen und Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 141: 432–475.
30925Ried A. (1960): Stoffwechsel und Verbreitungsgrenzen von Flechten I.: Flechtenzonierungen an Bachufern und ihre Beziehungen zur jährlichen Überflutungsdauer und zum Mikroklima. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 148: 612–638.
30924Lange O.L. & Redon J. (1983): Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen „Nebeloase“ (Fray Jorge) II. Ökophysiologische Charakterisierung von CO2-Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt [Epiphytic lichens in the region of a Chilean “Fog oasis” (Fray Jorge) II. Ecophysiological characterization of CO2 exchange and water relations]. - Flora, 174: 245–284.
In a previous communication (Part I) the epiphytic lichen vegetation in the region of the fog oasis Fray Jorge was reported. For 2 lichen communities, the habitat conditions have been characterized through microclimatological measurements. The present paper considers CO2 gas exchange and water relations of these lichens. Under controlled conditions, photosynthesis and respiration are reported as influenced by water content of the thalli, light intensity, and temperature, for selected species (Everniopsis trulla and Usnea lacerata from the Oropogonetum loxensis and Heterodermia spinulosa andRamalina cactacearum from the Ramalinetum cactacearum). The maximal rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 4 species were very similar. They exhibited medium range of CO2 exchange capacity when compared with maximum rates of species from other climatic regions. Moistened with liquid water, photosynthetic activity began at a thallus water content of 26 to 29 % (on a dry weight basis). Subsequently, net photosynthesis increased almost linearly with increasing water content. Very high water content resulted in a substantial depression of CO2 uptake for the species of the Ramalinetum. This apparently is due to increased diffusion resistances within the fully-moistened thalli. Characteristically, such a depression is much smaller or nonexistent for the species of the Oropogonetum. Water vapor uptake in the absence of condensation by the dry lichen thalli can also enable photosynthetic activity. For example, Ramalina cactacearum already exhibited CO2 uptake in equilibrium with a relative air humidity of 82 %, which corresponds to a water potential of —251 bar (at 10°C). In equilibrium with nearly saturated air, the lichens reached rates of photosynthesis which are similar to those which are attained at optimal water contents after moistening with liquid water. However with water vapor uptake, the same rates of net photosynthesis are possible at substantially lower thalli water contents than would be the case if the thalli were moistened with liquid water. Differences in activation of mitochondrial respiration and in the diffusive conductance of the thalli for CO2 may be the reasons for thie phenomenon. This has important implications for production ecology. Based upon the CO2 exchange measurements in the laboratory, the dependency of net photosynthesis of the experimental lichens on water status, light and temperature is presented in interpolation diagrams. These allow estimation of rates of CO2 uptake for a given combination of environmental factors. With the weather data obtained from the field measurements it is thus possible at least approximately to simulate gas exchange performance of the lichens under their natural conditions. Fog condensation results in water contents of the lichen thalli which — according to the simulations — allow maximal rates of net photosynthesis. With typical fog weather conditions, a positive net CO2 uptake is possible for the species of the Oropogonetum from briefly after sunrise until about 13 h when the moisture compensation point is finally reached. The daily photosynthetic CO2 gain under such circumstances amounts to about 5.47 mg CO2 per g dry weight. Conditions for production are much less favourable for the species of the Ramalinetum. However, the simulations show that in spite of the lack of moistening by fog in these habitats, water vapor uptake from the ambient air alone enables carbon gain in the morning. The duration and rate of net photosynthesis is very dependent on the humidity conditions during the night and on the rate of drying by solar radiation in the morning hours. Under conditions of high humidity at night, Heterodermia spinulosa attains a daily gain of 2.39 mg CO2 per g. The capability of the thalli to use air humidity as their main water source and their ability to conduct positive photosynthesis at extremely low thallus water potentials, are necessary characteristics for the existence of these species in the Ramalinetum.
30923Ried A. (1960): Stoffwechsel und Verbreitungsgrenzen von Flechten: II. Wasser- und Assimilationshaushalt, Entquellungs- und Submersionsresistenz von Krustenflechten benachbarter Standorte. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 149: 345–385.
30922Dässler H.-G. & Ranft H. (1969): Das Verhalten von Flechten und Moosen unter dem Einfluß einer Schwefeldioxidbegasung. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 158: 454–461.
30921Lange O.L. & Evenari M. (1971): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste: IV. Wachstumsmessungen an Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. [Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev desert IV. Growth measurements with Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb.]. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 160: 100–104.
During a period of c. 5 years growth rates of 13 thalli of Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. aurantia Poelt were measured in the highland of the Central Negev Desert near Avdat. An average annual radial rate of marginal growth of 0.68 mm was determined by direct measurements and of 0.56 mm by calculation from increment of thallus surface area. This growth equals medium growth rates of crustose epipetric lichens from other climatic regions and shows the good adaptation of the metabolism of Caloplaca to the specific conditions of the desert habitat. Annual productivity of Caloplaca amounted to c.10.4% of a young thallus. This value obtained by direct growth measurements confirms former calculations of annual lichen productivity in the Negev which were made from CO2 gas exchange measurements in the field.
30920Lange O.L. (1953): Hitze- und Trockenresistenz der Flechten in Beziehung zu ihrer Verbreitung. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 140: 39–97.
30919Kaule A. (1934): Über die Cephalodien der Flechten: (2. Beitrag.). - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 127: 345–361.
on cephalodiate lichens
30918Kaule A. (1931): Die Cephalodien der Flechten. - Flora oder Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung, 126: 1–44.
on cephalodiate lichens
30917Lange O.L. (1969): Experimentell-ökologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wüste I. CO2-Gaswechsel von Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory unter kontrollierten Bedingungen im Laboratorium. - Flora, 158: 324–359.
Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert I. CO2 gas exchange of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory under controlled conditions in the laboratory.
30916James P.W. (1967): Kleine Kryptogamenflora, H. Gams, in: Die Flechten, vol. III, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart (1967), p. 244, 84 figures. Price: DM. 28. - Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50: 511–512.
book review
30915Wirth V. & Türk R. (1975): Zur SO2-Resistenz von Flechten verschiedener Wuchsform [SO2 resistance of lichens with different growth forms]. - Flora, 164: 133–143.
To determine the SO2 resistance of lichens pertaining to different groups of growth form their thalli were exposed to SO2 in air (4 mg/m3) (determination of total resistance) or were submerged in Na2S2O5 solution (determination of plasmatic resistance). As a viability criterion the CO2 exchange of the thalli was measured with an infrared gas analyzer before and after SO2 exposure or sulphite treatment. 4 crustose lichens, 5 foliose lichens, 3 fruticose lichens and 1 foliose gelatinous lichen were tested. The resistance of the individual species as determined by the fumigation experiments and the sulphite treatment varies considerably, also within the usually employed growth form groups. An arrangement of the species in order of their plasmatic resistance results in another sequence than an arrangement in order of their total resistance. Of all the tested species the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum showed by far the highest plasmatic resistance. Although crustose lichens show a tendency to a greater resistance and fruticose lichens to a lower resistance to SO2 gas, there is no high correlation between growth form and SO2 sensitivity. Neither can crustose lichens be considered as generally more resistant than foliose ones nor can foliose lichens be considered as more resistant than fruticose species, because some of the tested lichens did not fit in this often accepted sequence of decreasing resistance. Some crustose lichens (e. g. Pertusaria corallina) were for instance found to be more sensitive than foliose lichens (e. g. Xanthoria parietina), several foliose lichens (Parmelia glabratula, Lobaria pulmonaria) were less resistant than beard-like lichens (Alectoria fuscescens, A. pubescens). After SO2 treatment the gelatinous lichen Collema cristatum is totally damaged. It is possible that anatomical-morphological features of the lichens influence the SO2 resistance, and some results support this, however the species are still too manifoldly differenciated within the roughly defined growth form groups to reveal a high correlation between growth form and SO2 sensitivity. It seems that lichens of moist and shady habitats are more easily damaged than those of dry sites. Epiphytic and silicate lichens apparently do not differ basically in their SO2 resistance. Lichen species with a large ecological amplitude are best qualified for bioindicators of SO2 pollution; lichens with a narrow ecological range are too sensitive to environmental changes not caused by SO2.
30914Nobel W., Beismann H., Franzaring J. , Kostka-Rick R., Wagner G. & Erhardt W. (2005): Standardisierte biologische Messverfahren zur Ermittlung und Bewertung der Wirkung von Luftverunreinigungen auf Pflanzen (Bioindikation) in Deutschland. Stand und Perspektiven [Standardised biological measurement procedures to determine and evaluate the effect of air pollution on plants (biomonitoring) in Germany – status and perspectives]. - Gefahrstoffe - Reinhaltung der Luft, 65: 478–484.
Status and perspectives of the standardisation work within the Commission on Air Pollution Prevention of VDI and DIN (KRdL) concerning biomonitoring in Germany are presented. The current VDI Guidelines are described shortly, partly with their historical development. Thereby advantages and disadvantages of technical measurement procedures and the differ ences between active and passive biomonitoring are discussed and where to use them is explained. The current work, also in other working groups, comprises e.g. the standardisation of procedures to evaluate biomonitoring results, procedures which account more for biodiversity aspects, faunistic approaches, and VDI Guidelines for a monitoring of genetically engineered organisms.
30913Haas H.F. & Krivan V. (1986): Ein Trennverfahren zur Bestimmung von Ag, Cd, Hg und Zn in biologischem Material durch radiochemische Neutronenaktivierungsanalyse [A separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis]. - Fresenius Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 324: 13–18.
A simple separation procedure for the determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn in biological material by radiochemical neutron activation analysis was developed. It enables the separation of the indicator radionuclides 110mAg, 198Au, 115Cd, 203Hg and 65Zn in a group with yields >99% and is well suited for the separation of 203Hg from 75Se and 65Zn from 46Sc. The separation of these radionuclides is often necessary because of the occurrence of instrumental interferences in the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Simultaneously, the limits of detection for Ag, Au and Cd can significantly be improved. The method is based on the decomposition of the sample in the mixture of HNO3/HCl/H2O2 and on the separation of Ag, Au, Cd, Hg and Zn on Dowex 1X8 from a sample solution being 1.5 M with HCl. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by the analysis of lichens and several kinds of fungi. For the experimental conditions used, the limits of detection are of the order of magnitude of 10 ng/g.
30912Koller G. & Passler W. (1930): Über die Konstitution der Caprarsäure. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 56: 212–233.
chemistry; caperatic acid
30911Krivan V., Egger K.P., Hausbeck R. & Schmid W. (1986): Belastung der Luft und anderer durch Niederschlag kontaminierter Umweltproben des Ulmer Raumes mit radioaktiven Spaltprodukten nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl [Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor]. - Fresenius´ Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 325: 597–602.
Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results.
30910Kostka-Rick R., Leffler U.S., Markert B., Herpin U., Lusche L. & Lehrke J. (2001): Biomonitoring zur wirkungsbezogenen Ermittlung der Schadstoffbelastung in terrestrischen Ökosystemen. - Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, 13: 5–12.
Biomonitoring programmes provide relevant information, which may supplement ambient air pollution monitoring or modelling around emission sources. As a prerequisite, assessment scales for biomonitoring data have to be derived based on an objective evaluation of available data, as well as on a scheme of presentation, which is suggestive and easily understandable even for laymen. Based on an evaluation of numerous monitoring programmes, assessment scales for biomonitoring results are derived for plant biomonitoring, which also serve as a basis for the graphical presentation of monitoring results. This study is focussed on bioindicator plants like mosses (passive biomonitoring) and exposed lichens (active biomonitoring), in which 14 metal elements are investigated. As an example, data from a local biomonitoring network around a cement plant were used to demonstrate the use of the assessment scales derived and the presentation scheme developed. Data sets from about 15 moss and 24 lichen biomonitoring programmes, comprising more than 1000 specimens, were sorted by their pollutant characteristics in order to form the database. Data on the metal contents of species demonstrating similar values with respect to growth characteristics and habit, and representing background or low pollution levels, are aggregated and their statistical distributions are evaluated. Spacing of the assessment scales and their colour designations are derived from the 50-, 75-, 90- and 95-percentile values. Graphical presentation allows a comparison of the absolute values of metal contents and a relative association of measured values. Exemplary results from moss and lichen monitoring around a cement plant are generally below or slightly above the median values at background and low-pollution sites. Metal contents are higher in lichens compared to mosses for 7 elements (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn), and are lower in lichens only for thallium. The assessment scheme presented is mainly aimed at the practitioner in the field of biomonitoring in order to provide a reliable and sound scale of assessment by comparison on an absolute scale rather than presenting the basis of ecological risk assessment. Differences in metal content of co-located samples of various moss species and possible correction procedures are briefly discussed- as well as the consequences of pooling monitoring data across various moss species for the quality of assessment scales. Further evaluations shall focus on species-specific rather than on pooled databases and will investigate the consequences of the use of correction factors when extrapolating metal data from one monitoring species to another. Keywords: Assessment scale; assessment scheme; biomonitoring; environmental monitoring; heavy metals; lichens; lichen monitoring; mosses; moss monitoring; soil monitoring.
30909Koller G. & Pfeiffer G. (1933): Über Enzyme der Flechten und über die Konstitution der Umbilikarsäure. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 62: 359–372.
30908Niemann A. (1967): Über die Differential-Thermoanalyse von Flechten, die auf Kalksteinen wachsen. - Fresenius´ Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 231: 456–457.
30907Zellner J. (1934): Zur Chemie der Flechten III. Parmelia physodes L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 64: 6–11.
30906Zellner J. (1935): Zur Chemie der Flechten IV. Gyrophora Dillenii (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. und Parmelia furfuracea L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 66: 81–86.
30905Zellner J. (1932): Zur Chemie der Flechten (I. Mitteilung). Über Peltigera canina L.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 61: 300–304.
30904Klima J. (1933): Zur Chemie der Flechten II. Alectoria ochroleuca Ehrh.. - Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften, 62: 209–213.
30903Lippert W. & Döbbeler P. (2002): Dr. Helmut Wunder 30.1.1940 - 17.12.2001. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 72: 201–203.
obituary; biography
30902Grims F. (1977): Das Donautal zwischen Aschach und Passau, ein Refugium bemerkenswerter Pflanzen in Oberösterreich. - Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 9: 5–80.
Upper Austria; one chapter on lichens
30901Meusel H. (1939): Mitteldeutsche Vegetationsbilder. 1. Die Steinklöbe bei Nebra und der Ziegelrodaer Forst. - Hercynia, 1: 8–98.
Germany; xerothermic vegetation; lichens det. E. Riehmer
30900Schmid J. & Bogenrieder A. (1998): Spirken-Moorwälder im Schwarzwald. Das Steerenmoos bei Faulenfürst (Gemeinde Schluchsee). - Mitteilungen des Badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, N.F., Freiburg im Breisgau, 17: 29–58.
Berg-Kiefern-Hochmoor, Pino mugo-Sphagnetum magellanici, Spirken-Moorwald, Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum rotundatae, Pinus rotundata Link, Moor-Kiefer, Spirke, Pinus mugo s.l., Reliktbaumart, Moorschutz, Naturschutzwürdigkeit, Schwarzwald, Steerenmoos.
30899Nörr M. (1969): Die Moosvegetation des Naturschutzgebietes Bodetal. - Hercynia, 6: 345–435.
bryosociology; dozens of lichens listed in the relevés
30898Fetzmann E. (1961): Vegetationsstudien im Tanner Moor (Mühlviertel, Oberösterreich). - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 170: 69–88.
30897Hilbig W. & Reichhoff L. (1977): Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlichen Teiles der DDR XIII. Die Vegetation der Fels- und Mauerspalten, des Steinschuttes und der Kalkgesteins Pionierstandorte. - Hercynia, 14: 21–46.
Germany; phytosociology
30896Reimers H. (1940): Bemerkenswerte Moos- und Flechtengesellschaften auf Zechstein-Gips am Südrande des Kyffhäuser und des Harzes. - Hedwigia, 79: 81–174.
30895Holzner W. & Hübl E. (1977): Zur Vegetation der Kalkalpengipfel des Westlichen Niederösterreich. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutz der Bergwelt, 42: 247–269.
30894Ricek E.W. (1970): Kryptogamenvereine an Lehmböschungen. - Jahrbuch des Oberösterreichischen Musealvereines, 115: 267–298.
30893Schaeftlein H. (1962): Ein eigenartiges Hochmoor in den Schladminger Tauern. - Mitteilungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 92: 104–119.
30892Poelt J. (1975): Basidienflechten, eine in den Alpen lange übersehene Pflanzengruppe. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 40: 81–92.
basidiolichens
30891Dittrich S., Schmiedel D., Laupichler B., Wagner F. & von Oheimb G. (2016): Auswirkungen von Waldbränden auf die Langzeitdynamik naturnaher Kiefernwälder (Leucobryo-Pinetum) im Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz (Sachsen, Deutschland) [Impact of forest fires on the long-term dynamics of near-natural Scots pine forests (Leucobryo-Pinetum) in Saxon Switzerland National Park (Saxony, Germany)]. - Tuexenia, 36: 23–36.
Compared to deciduous forest associations, long-term investigations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Central Europe are scarce and their succession dynamics are not well studied. Although being the most fire-prone forest type in Central Europe, there is also a lack of data on the long-term effects of forest fires on the vegetation of Central European Scots Pine forests. Additionally, pine stands are highly vulnerable to eutrophication, strongly altering vegetation. Therefore, we studied near-natural, fire-affected Scots pine forests (Leucobryo-Pinetum) within Saxon Switzerland National Park (Saxony federal state, Germany) by permanent observation plots. Plots where surveyed by vegetation relevés repeated up to four times. Based on the date of the relevant fire events and the year of plot establishment, we analysed three time series (A: 1963–2012, fire 1948/1953); B: 2002–2014, fire: 1993; C: 2002–2014, fire: 2000). Unexpectedly, we found low variation in plant diversity and a low species turnover across the time series. Only few species where propagated by the forest fire events in the short run, few species showed significant cover variations depending on the time passed since the forest fire. Nitrophytic species where nearly absent. The low eutrophication signal in the vegetation is attributed to nitrogen deposition rates below critical rates for species turnover. Compared to Scots pine plantations and Scots pine forests originating from extensive management, near natural stands of the Leucobryo-Pinetum appear as a relatively stable forest type, which is only shortly affected by local forest fires and underlies stagnant succession dynamics in the long run. Keywords: forest dynamics, permanent observation plots, Pinus sylvestris. Lichens from relevés were identified by K.M. Stetzka.
30890Rottensteiner W.K. (2018): Notizen zur „Flora von Istrien“, Teil IV. - Joannea Botanik, 15: 119–214.
Croatia, Istria; 8 macrolichens listed, identified by H. Mayrhofer (p. 122–123 & 147)
30889Wesche K., Otte V., Boyle H., Damm U., Gebauer P., Ritz C.M. & Wesenberg J. (2016): Die botanisch-mykologischen Sammlungen in Görlitz – zentrale Anlaufstellen für die haupt- und ehrenamtliche Pflanzen- und Pilzkunde in der Oberlausitz. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 24: 37–50.
Germany; herbaria
30888Schurig A., Beck A., Goldberg R., Otte V., Sbrzesny K. & Wünsche A.E. (2015): Botanische Untersuchungen im Naturdenkmal „Brazilka“ (Lauschemoor) in Tschechien. Teil 1: Flora. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23: 59–94.
A botanical survey of the natural monument „Brazilka“ (Lauschemoor) in the Czech Republic. Part 1: Flora. A geobotanical survey of the Lauschemoor (Brazilka) fen in the Czech Republic was performed in 2011/12. Over an area of about 8.9 ha, 260 species of vascular plant, 67 bryophytes and 56 lichens were observed. The results are presented in a table. The species composition is interpreted from a phytogeographical point of view, and changes in species composition following the restoration measures are discussed. Both present and absent species reflect the changeful history of utilisation of this fen. Keywords: revitalization of bogs, lichens, mosses, spermatophytes, Lužické hory.
30887Decker P., Voigtländer K., Düker C., Hutchinson J.M.C., Lübcke T., Moll S., Mühle E., Müller J., Otte V., Reise H., Schindler S. & Weinert G. (2015): Artenliste vom „Tag der Artenvielfalt“ 2015 auf dem Städtischen Friedhof in Görlitz. - Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23: 161–170.
Species list from the „Day for Biological Diversity“ 2015 in the city cemetery of Görlitz Within the scope of the “Day of Biological Diversity” (13th June 2015), the biodiversity of the city cemetery in Görlitz, Saxony, was investigated under the guidance of the staff of the cemetery and of the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz. The number of species identified were: 100 spermatophytes, 1 fern, 13 mosses, 41 lichens, 18 gastropods, 16 spiders, 7 ground beetles, 16 millipedes and centipedes, and 27 birds. Keywords: biodiversity, fauna, flora, Saxony, Germany, Spermatophyta, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes, Gastropoda, Araneae, Carabidae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Aves.
30886Krause J., Müller J., Otte V. & Heinken T. (2017): Die Moos- und Flechtenflora auf Apfel- und Kirschbäumen in Plantagen im Potsdamer Raum. - Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin und Brandenburg, 149: 135–151.
We studied the flora of epiphytes of orchards around Potsdam (Brandenburg, NE Germany) and surveyed in winter 2012/13 304 apple and cherry trees. A total of 97 identified epiphytic bryophyte and lichen species were found (plus 6 unidentified taxa), among them 36 bryo-phyte, 34 foliose and 33 crustaceous lichen species. Twenty-eight bryophyte species grew on apple trees and 32 on cherry trees. In the group of lichen species 36 species were found on apple trees and 62 on cherry trees. Eleven recorded bryophyte species are listed in the cur-rent Red List of Threaten Species of Brandenburg. Five of the lichen species have a Red List status and nine more are not listed so far, they thus recolonized Brandenburg in the last few years or spread forward. A second record for Brandenburg was done for the crustaceous lichen species Ochrolechia arborea. The results underline the importance of orchards for epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, es-pecially the extensively managed or fallow orchards.
30885Vannini A., Paoli L., Nicolardi V., Di Lella L.A. & Loppi S. (2017): Seasonal variations in intracellular trace element content and physiological parameters in the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted to an urban environment. - Acta Botanica Croatica, 76(2): 171–176.
In this study we investigated the seasonal variations in the intracellular content of 14 trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Sb, Zn) and physiological parameters (namely chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ergosterol, photosynthetic efficiency, cell membrane integrity) in the thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. exposed to an urban environment (Siena, central Italy). Lichen thalli were collected before each exposure period from an unpolluted area and transplanted to 16 sites; every 3 months the thalli were retrieved and replaced with new ones. Exposed-to-control ratios of trace elements revealed a marked intracellular accumulation of Cd in summer and autumn, and of Sb in autumn and spring, possibly as a result of vehicular traffic pollution. However, considering the low absolute concentrations of these elements, the intracellular fraction of depositions may hardly have caused an impairment of physiological parameters. As a matter of fact, indicators of photobiont vitality (content of chlorophylls a and b and photosynthetic efficiency) did not show any fluctuation across seasons, while changes in the indicators of mycobiont vitality (cell membrane damage and ergosterol content) overall did reflect some seasonal changes and/or lichen growth. Keywords: air pollution; antimony; bioaccumulation; biomonitoring; cadmium; epiphytes; heavy metals.
30884Sass-Gyarmati A. & Vojtkó A. (2010): The Herbarium of the Botanical Department in Károly Eszterházy College (Eger). - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 1: 7–13.
Hungary; herbaria
30883Kovács D., Matus G., Sinigla M. & Lőkös L. (2017): Distribution of the genus Trapeliopsis Hertel & Gotth. Schneid. (lichenised Ascomycota) in Hungary. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 51.
Conference abstract
30882Dulai S., Kereszturi Á., Radnai Z., Tarnai R., Szopkó D. & Pócs T. (2017): Effects of salt, oxidative stress and perchlorate treatments on the activity of phototrophic energy transforming system in intact cryptobiotic crusts originated from different habitats. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 52.
Conference abstract
30881Veres K. & Csintalan Z. (2017): Life on sand dunes from lichens point of view – effect of microclimate and seasonality on activity of terricolous lichen communities. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 62.
Conference abstract
30880Deme J., Kovács D., Alegro A., Šegota V., Purger D. & Csiky J. (2017): Lichenological and bryological curiosities in the Papuk Mt (Croatia). - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 49.
Conference abstract
30879Balogh L., FarkasE., Lőkös L., Papp B., Budai J., Antal K., Novák T. & Matus G. (2017): Mosses and lichens in dynamics of acidic sandy grasslands: specific response to grazing exclosure. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 30.
Conference abstract
30878Fraga Júnior C.A.V., Gumboski E.L. & Eliasaro S. (2017): The genus Cladonia (Lichenized Ascomycota) from Restinga vegetation of Espírito Santo state, Brazil: Supergroups Cladonia and Cocciferae. - Rodriguésia, 68(5): 1951–1962.
This paper deals with 14 species of the genus Cladonia, occurring at Restinga vegetation of Espírito Santo state, with eight belonging to the Supergroup Cladonia and six to the Supergroup Cocciferae. Cladonia corallifera, C. crustacea, C. subminiata, C. pityrophylla, and C. polyscypha are new records for the state. An identification key, comments and illustrations are also provided. Key words: Atlantic rainforest, Cladoniaceae, dimorphic lichens, lichenized fungi, taxonomy.
30877Farkas E., Lőkös L., Sinigla M. & Varga N. (2017): The genus Lepraria (lichen-forming fungi) in Hungary. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 50.
Conference abstract
30876Farkas E., Engel R., Bíró B., Szabó K., Veres K. & Csintalan Z. (2017): Recovery of acetone rinsed lichen thalli of Cladonia foliacea. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 27.
Conference abstract
30875Balogh L. & Lőkös L. (2017): Vilmos Piers’ lichen collection in the Savaria Museum, Szombathely. - Acta Biologica Plantarum Agriensis, 5(1): 47.
Conference abstract
30874Cekic F.O., Goren-Saglam N., Torun H., Yigit E. & Unal D. (2018): Gamma-amino butyric acid metabolism under high temperature stress in two lichen species. - Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(5): 5529–5538.
High temperature stress is a major environmental stress factor for all photosynthetic organisms. Some lichen species could have the ability of tolerance against global warming. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high temperature on GABA metabolism in two different lichen species Evernia prunastri and Usnea sp.. Evernia and Usnea sp. were collected from unpolluted locations in Bilecik, TURKEY. Evernia and Usnea sp. were kept at 45 °C for 0, 24 and 48 h. We analyzed GABA content, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activities and also chlorophyll and MDA contents in the thalli of the lichens. The chlorophyll degradation and lipid peroxidation data indicated that E. prunastri thalli showed tolerance to high temperature while Usnea sp. thalli were found to be sensitive under these conditions. GABA content was enhanced by high temperature stress in E. prutastri thalli, while GAD and GDH activities were decreased. According to our results, we can suggest that GABA accumulation in lichen thalli could occur via different metabolic pathways. Keywords: Evernia, GABA, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate dehydogenase, high temperature, Usnea. Abbreviations: GABA: gamma-amino butyric acid; GAD: glutamate decarboxylase; GDH: glutamate dehydrogenase; MDA: malondialdehyde.
30873Mallavadhani U.V., Somasekhar T., Sagarika G. & Ramakrishna S. (2018): Isolation, chemical modification and cytotoxic evaluation of atranorin, the major metabolite of the foliose lichen Parmotrema melanothrix. - European Chemical Bulletin, 7(4): 150–155.
The foliose lichen, Parmotrema melanothrix has been chemically screened for the first time and isolated the depside atranorin (1) in significant quantity (2 %) along with methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate (2) and methyl 3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (3). In view of its abundance, interesting structural features and significant biological profile, atranorin was subjected to chemical modification and synthesised five diverse analogues in very good yields (70~93%). The synthesised analogues along with the three isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a panel of six human cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Among the tested compounds, 1a showed enhanced activity than the parent compound (1) against almost all the tested cell lines. Significantly, 1a showed highest activity (IC50 = 15.19 μM) against prostate cancer cell line (DU145). The results indicate that complete protection of the phenolic hydroxyls in atranorin as acetates enhances the cytotoxicity, especially against DU 145. Keywords: Lichen, Parmotrema melanothrix, atranorin, cytotoxicity, MTT assay.
30872Gumboski E.L., Spielmann A.A., Canêz L.S. & Gonçalves K. (2018): The disjunct distribution of Cladonia dimorphoclada Robbins (Ascomycota: Cladoniaceae): first record in South America. - Hoehnea, 45(4): 629–632.
Previously known only from the North and Central America, the lichenized fungi Cladonia dimorphoclada Robbins is recorded for the first time in South America. The specimens were found growing on soil, in an open area at 1695 m alt., in Southern Brazil. We present a distribution map, figures, and comments. Keywords: Atlantic Forest, biodiversity, fungi, high altitude fields, lichen.
30871Waters D.P. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): The Lichens and Allied Fungi of Mercer County, New Jersey. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 18: 17–51.
A checklist of the lichens and allied fungi from Mercer County, New Jersey, is presented. It was derived from inventories of 14 tracts of preserved and undeveloped land, which yielded 905 collections and 174 taxa. These include 37 new records for New Jersey, two of which, Catinaria neuschildii and Strangospora pinicola, have been rarely reported from North America. It also includes Agonimia flabelliformis, which is newly reported for North America from localities throughout the Appalachian and Ozark Mountains. Catillaria patteeana is described as new to science as well. These inventories demonstrate that substantial lichen diversity remains undiscovered even in densely populated regions of the Mid-Atlantic characterized by highly fragmented and disturbed natural landscapes with relatively small areas of unaltered, contiguous core-natural habitat. Keywords. – Biogeography, Coastal Plain, diabase, floristics, Piedmont, rare species, species-richness, symbiosis.
30870Janssen P., Fuhr M. & Bouget C. (2019): Beyond forest habitat qualities: Climate and tree characteristics as the major drivers of epiphytic macrolichen assemblages in temperate mountains. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 30: 42–54.
Questions: How are epiphytic macrolichen assemblages shaped by forest habitat quality as reflected by the availability of late-developmental forest attributes (i.e., stand maturity) and the temporal continuity of the wooded state (i.e., forest continuity)? Are these two forest habitat features the main drivers of lichen assemblages, and if so, at which spatial scale? Study Site: Temperate mountain forests in the French Northern Alps. Methods: In our sampling design, we defined treatments by crossing forest continuity (ancient vs recent) and stand maturity (mature vs overmature), then quantified lichen response to the treatments at the stand (n = 70) and tree scales (n = 420). We distinguished between total macrolichen and Lobarion species alone. Finally, we assessed the influence of tree-, stand-and landscape-scale variables, as well as climatic variables. Results: Neither total macrolichen nor Lobarion diversity and composition were influenced by forest continuity, stand maturity or by stand-or landscape-associated variables. Instead, climatic variables, light availability at the stand scale and host tree characteristics were the major drivers of lichen assemblages. In our mountain forests, this clearly shows that macrolichen were more influenced by local abiotic and biotic factors than by present or past human-induced activities. Conclusions: Overall, we show that assemblage patterns in forest ecosystems may be driven by parameters that are not directly related to habitat quality. The influences of forest continuity and stand maturity on diversity and composition thus appear to be context-dependent. In the ecological context of alpine forests, these findings highlight the benefits of selective-cutting practices and illustrate the importance of structural heterogeneity, in terms of both improved accessibility to light and tree diameter diversity. Finally, the importance of temperature in shaping assemblage patterns suggests that global warming is probably the most significant threat to macrolichen conservation in temperate mountain forests. Keywords: ancient forest, biodiversity conservation, diversity patterns, epiphytic macrolichens, forest management, habitat quality, mountain forest.
30869Zhao J.-L., Werth S., Ikegami M., Gugger P.F. & Sork V.L. (2019): Historical interactions are predicted to be disrupted under future climate change: The case of lace lichen and valley oak. - Journal of Biogeography, 46: 19–29.
Aim: The distributions and interactions of co‐occurring species may change if their ranges shift asymmetrically in response to rapid climate change. We aim to test whether two currently interacting taxa, valley oak (Quercus lobata) and lace lichen (Ramalina menziesii ), have had a long ‐ lasting historical association and are likely to continue to associate in the future. Location: Central western California, western United States of America Methods: Using population genetic analyses and M AXENT software for ecological niche modelling, we estimate species’ distributions during the Last Interglacial, the Last Glacial Maximum, present, and future periods. Mantel and vertex (genetic con- nection) tests were used to examine the spatial congruence among taxa. To com- pare the modelled response to climate change, we estimated migration speed between respective time periods using vector analysis. Results: We found significant genetic congruence between valley oak and the lichen's green algal photobiont, independent of geographic isolation and habitat iso- lation, which is consistent with long‐term association. Ecological niche models under past and future climate scenarios indicate that overlap of climatic niche sharing between valley oak and lace lichen might decrease in the future. Our models indi- cate that the speed of shifts in climate niches between these two taxa differed sig- nificantly in past periods from that of the present period. Main conclusions: Our findings reveal that historical interactions between valley oak and lace lichen correlate with long‐term sharing of past climate niches. How- ever, the future association of lace lichen with valley oak may be disrupted in parts of its current distribution due to differential discordance of climate niche shifts, spe- cies’ movements and generation times. This study illustrates the processes and pat- terns that allow long‐term association during historic climate change and how they are likely to change during rapid climate change. Keywords: climate change, co-occurrence, ecological niche modelling, migration, Quercus lobata, Ramalina menziesii.
30868Lagarde A., Millot M., Pinnon A., Liagre B., Girardot M., Imbert C., Ouk T.S., Jargeat P. & Mambu L. (2018): Antiproliferative and antibiofilm potentials of endolichenic fungi associated with the lichen Nephroma laevigatum. - Journal of Applied Microbiology, 126(4): 1044–1058.
Aims: The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of endolichenic fungi from Nephroma laevigatum and to investigate their antiproliferative and antibiofilm potential. Methods and Results: Forty‐six isolates were obtained and identified by DNA barcoding. They belonged to genera Nemania, Daldinia, Peziza and Coniochaeta. Six strains belonging to the most represented species were selected and tested for their antiproliferative and antibiofilm activities. Extracts were analysed by reversed‐phase HPLC. Activities against fungal and bacterial biofilm were evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT) assay and crystal violet assay respectively. Antiproliferative responses of extracts were determined by the 3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis induction by two extracts was observed in two cell lines (HT‐29 and PC‐3) via morphological changes, pro‐apoptotic and anti‐apoptotic proteins analysis (Western blotting) and DNA fragmentation. Four extracts displayed activities against Candida albicans biofilm with IC50 values ranging from 25 to 200 μg ml−1. All extracts were inactive against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The most active isolates against human colorectal (HT‐29 and HCT116) and prostate (PC‐3 and DU145) cancer cell lines were Nemania serpens (NL08) and Nemania aenea var. aureolatum (NL38) with IC50 values ranging from 13 to 39 μg ml−1. These extracts induced an apoptotic process through activation of caspases 8 and 3, poly(ADP‐ribose) polymerase cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions: Selected crude fungal extracts have antiproliferative and antibiofilm activities. Data suggest that this antipoliferative effect is due to apoptosis process. This is the first report showing the effects of endolichenic fungi from N. laevigatum. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the therapeutic potential of endolichenic fungi metabolites as sources for drug discovery programmes.
30867Elvebakk A. (2018): Pannaria pyxinoides comb. nov., an overlooked lichen species from northern New Zealand. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 36–41.
The name Psoroma pyxinoides, which has been considered to be a synonym of Pannaria sphinctrina, is shown here to represent a distinct species, differing from P. sphinctrina by thallus characters and in spore and pycnidium morphology. Those characters indicate a relationship with Pannaria allorhiza. Like the latter species, P. pyxinoides is endemic to northern New Zealand, and is at present known from 11 localities.
30866Mayrhofer H. & Elix J.A. (2018): A new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from eastern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 22–25.
Rinodina michaelae H.Mayrhofer & Elix, characterized by the presence of 6-O-methylarthothelin and zeorin, is described as new to science from Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.
30865McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G. (2018): Anisomeridium disjunctum (Monoblastiaceae), a new lichen species from Tasmania, with a key to the genus in Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 54–60.
Anisomeridium disjunctum sp. nov. (Monoblastiaceae) is described from Callitris wood and Leucopogon bark in eastern, north-eastern and north-western Tasmania. It has a very thin, whitish to pale grey thallus that is UV+ pale yellow, small, perithecioid ascomata with a comparatively thick ascomatal wall, 1(–3)-septate ascospores (12–21 × 4.5–7.5 μm), macroconidia 5–8 × 2.5–4 μm, and exceptionally minute microconidia (0.8–1.5 × 0.7–1.1 μm). A preliminary key is provided to the 18 species of Anisomeridium currently known from Australia.
30864Elix J.A., Mayrhofer H. & Rodriguez J.M. (2018): Two new species, a new combination and four new records of saxicolous buellioid lichens (Ascomycota, Caliciaceae) from southern South America. - Australasian Lichenology, 83: 3–13.
Amandinea puertomonttensis Elix, H.Mayrhofer & J.M.Rodr. and Tetramelas fuegiensis Elix, H.Mayrhofer & J.M.Rodr. are described as new to science, and the new combination Buellia pygmaea (Räsänen) Elix, H.Mayrhofer & J.M.Rodr. is proposed for B. protothallina var. pygmaea Räsänen. Amandinea fuscoatratula (Zahlbr.) Elix, A. subplicata (Nyl.) Øvstedal, Buellia ocellata (Flot.) Körb. and B. stellulata var. tasmanica Elix & Kantvilas are reported for the first time from South America.
30863Gilbert J.A. & Corbin J.D. (2019): Biological soil crusts inhibit seed germination in a temperate pine barren ecosystem. - PLoS ONE, 14(2): e0212466 [9 p.].
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known to affect plants’ germination and seedling establishment in arid ecosystems, but their ecological role in more mesic climates is not so well-known. We tested the effects of moss-crusted versus uncrusted soils on seed germination dynamics in a temperate pine barren ecosystem. We conducted a 35-day laboratory assay of seed germination on moss-crusted soils versus uncrusted soils from the Albany (NY) Pine Bush Preserve. We compared total seed germination and the number of days to 50% of total germination of two herbaceous perennial forb species in each soil type. Three and five times more seeds germinated on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil for bush clover (Lespedeza capitata) and wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), respectively. Seeds of both species also germinated approximately 10 days earlier on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil. This study, and others in similar habitats, show that BSCs in mesic climates can influence germination and other early life-history stages of plants. We hope that further study of the interactions between BSCs and vascular plants in mesic climates will contribute to our understanding of the ecology of BSCs outside the arid and semiarid climates where they are more extensively studied.
30862Elix J.A., Kantvilas G. & McCarthy P.M. (2019): Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Australia. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 10–15.
Rinodina argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy, characterized by the presence of argopsin and zeorin, and R. teniswoodiorum Elix & Kantvilas, containing zeorin and arthothelin, are described as new to science from southern New South Wales and eastern Tasmania, respectively.
30861Fryday A.M. (2019): Corrections to reports of buellioid lichens from New Zealand’s subantarctic islands, including Sclerococcum thelotrematicola comb. nov. and Epilichen scabrosus new to the southern hemisphere. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 26–32.
The type, and only, collections of Buellia campbelliana Elix and Buellia thelotrematicola Elix are shown to be referable to Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem. and Sclerococcum, respectively. Epilichen scabrosus is here reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere. The new combination Sclerococcum thelotrematicola (Elix) Fryday is made, and the host species is shown to be Gintarasia lamellifera.
30860Elix J.A., McCarthy P.M., Kantvilas G. & Archer A.W. (2019): Additional lichen records from Australia 85. - Australasian Lichenology, 84: 55–71.
Seven lichen species, Arthonia vinosa Leight., Caloplaca chalybaea (Fr.) Müll.Arg., Pertusaria alboatra Zahlbr., P. labuensis A.W.Archer & Elix, P. neilgherrensis (Müll.Arg.) D.D.Awasthi & P.Srivast., Rhizocarpon ridescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. and Varicellaria hemisphaerica (Flörke) I.Schmitt & Lumbsch, are reported from Australia for the first time. New state, territory and oceanic island records are provided for 50 other taxa.
30859Hafellner J. (2018): Lichenicolous biota (Nos 271–300). - Fritschiana (Graz), 90: 1–22.
The 12th fascicle (30 numbers) of the exsiccata 'Lichenicolous Biota' is published. The issue contains material of 27 nonlichenized fungal taxa (19 teleomorphs of ascomycetes, 5 anamorphic states of ascomycetes, 3 basidiomycetes), including isotype material of Sclerococcum cladoniae Diederich (no 300). Furthermore, collections of the type species of the following genera are distributed: Cecidonia (C. umbonella), Milospium (M. graphideorum), Nigropuncta (N. rugulosa), Plectocarpon (P. lichenum), and Rhagadostoma (R. lichenicola). The new combination Polycoccum psoromatis (A.Massal.) Hafellner is proposed.
30858Diederich P., Zimmermann E., Sikaroodi M., Ghobad-Nejhad M. & Lawrey J.D. (2018): A first lichenicolous Corticium species (Corticiaceae, Corticiales), described from Thamnolia in Switzerland. - Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois, 120: 49–56.
The new lichenicolous fungus, Corticium silviae Diederich, E.Zimm. & Lawrey is described from Switzerland, where it grows on Thamnolia. Phylogenetic results also suggest that Limonomyces should best be regarded as a synonym of Laetisaria, a genus that has a sister position to Marchandiomyces. The following new combinations are proposed: Laetisaria buckii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Marchandiomyces buckii), L. culmigena (R.K.Webster & D.A.Reid) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Exobasidiellum culmigenum), L. marsonii (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= M. marsonii), L. nothofagicola (Diederich & Lawrey) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= M. nothofagicola), L. roseipellis (Stalpers & Loer.) Diederich, Lawrey & Ghobad-Nejhad (= Limonomyces roseipellis).
30857Diederich P. (2017): Unravelling an unexpected lichen diversity in Seychelles. - Kapisen, 20: 11–13.
popular paper
30856Calcott M.J., Ackerley D.F., Knight A., Keyzers R.A. & Owen J.G. (2018): Secondary metabolism in the lichen symbiosis. - Chemical Society Reviews, 47(5): 1730–1760.
Review paper. Lichens, which are defined by a core symbiosis between a mycobiont (fungal partner) and a photobiont (photoautotrophic partner), are in fact complex assemblages of microorganisms that constitute a largely untapped source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Historically, compounds isolated from lichens have predominantly been those produced by the dominant fungal partner, and these continue to be of great interest for their unique chemistry and biotechnological potential. In recent years it has become apparent that many photobionts and lichen-associated bacteria also produce a range of potentially valuable molecules. There is evidence to suggest that the unique nature of the symbiosis has played a substantial role in shaping many aspects of lichen chemistry, for example driving bacteria to produce metabolites that do not bring them direct benefit but are useful to the lichen as a whole. This is most evident in studies of cyanobacterial photobionts, which produce compounds that differ from free living cyanobacteria and are unique to symbiotic organisms. The roles that these and other lichen-derived molecules may play in communication and maintaining the symbiosis are poorly understood at present. Nonetheless, advances in genomics, mass spectrometry and other analytical technologies are continuing to illuminate the wealth of biological and chemical diversity present within the lichen holobiome. Implementation of novel biodiscovery strategies such as metagenomic screening, coupled with synthetic biology approaches to reconstitute, re-engineer and heterologously express lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivable host, offer a promising means for tapping into this hitherto inaccessible wealth of natural products.
30855Jackson T.A. & Keller W.D. (1970): A comparative study of the role of lichens and "inorganic" processes in the chemical weathering of Recent Hawaiian lava flows. - American Journal of Science, 269(5): 446–466.
The lichen Stereocaulon vulcani, which grows abundantly on recent lava flows on the Island of Hawaii, greatly accelerates the chemical weathering of its substrate. The importance of the lichen (or its associated microflora, or both) in chemical weathering is indicated by the following evidence: (1) The weathering crust of lichen-covered rock is thicker by some orders of magnitude than the weathering crust of bare rock; (2) the lichen-covered weathering crust is considerably enriched in Fe and impoverished in Si, Ti, and Ca with respect to the lichen-free weathering crust, whose chemical composition is much closer to that of the unaltered rock; (3) the lichen-covered weathering crust; and (4) the iron oxide in the lichen-covered weathering crust is mineralogically different from the iron oxide in the lichen-free weathering crust. Biological acceleration of chemical weathering can be explained by the action of respiratory CO 2 and the H+ ions of organic acids, but the data also suggest the action of organic complexing agents. It is shown, however, that the biogenic "primary laterite" could not have been formed by differential accumulation of rock-forming elements by the lichen. Thus, a considerable proportion of the Si and Al solubilized by the organisms must be leached into the subsurface by rain water.
30854Kojola I., Helle T., Niskanen M. & Aikio P. (1995): Effects of lichen biomass on winter diet, body mass and reproduction of semi-domesticated reindeer Rangifer t. tarandus in Finland. - Wildlife BioIogy, 1: 33–38.
Winter food supply very likely influences the life history of reindeer Rangifer t. tarandus. We therefore examined how lichen biomass affects winter diet composition, body mass and reproduction in 14 herds of semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Finland. Diet composit ion was assessed microhistologically on faeces collected from the actual winter feeding sites of reindeer. When lichen was scarce at these sites reindeer included vascular plant s and mosses in their diet. Calf dressed weight depend ed on both ground lichen biomass and the intensity of supplemental feeding, doe dressed weight depended on lichen biomass alone. One explanation for this difference between calves and does is the connection between food supply and calf mortality: low lichen biomass may promote newborn mortality, which, in turn, frees breeding females from investing further in current reproductive investment. Relative offspring weight (calf/female weight ratio) depended on both lichen biomass and supplemental feeding. Low lichen avai lability appeared to enhance the impact of density-independent factors on reproduction, because the annual variation in reproductive rate increased with decre asing lichen biomass.
30853Eldridge D.J., Woodhouse J.N., Curlevski N.J.A., Hayward M., Brown M.V. & Neilan B.A. (2015): Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland. - The ISME Journal, 9: 2671–2681.
Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance.
30852Kraichak E., Crespo A., Divakar P.K., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): A temporal banding approach for consistent taxonomic ranking above the species level. - Scientific Reports, 7:2297 [7 p.].
Comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Here we use a temporal approach to identify taxonomic ranks. This is an extension of the temporal banding approach including a Temporal Error Score that finds an objective cut-off for each taxonomic rank using information for the current classification. We illustrate this method using a data set of the lichenized fungal family Parmeliaceae. To assess its performance, we simulated the effect of taxon sampling and compared our method with the other temporal banding method. For our sampled phylogeny, 11 of the 12 included families remained intact and 55 genera were confirmed, whereas 32 genera were lumped and 15 genera were split. Taxon sampling impacted the method at the genus level, whereas yielded only insignificant changes at the family level. The other available temporal approach also gives a similar cutoff point to our method. Our approach to identify taxonomic ranks enables taxonomists to revise and propose classifications on an objective basis, changing ranks of clades only when inconsistent with most taxa in a phylogenetic tree. An R script to find the time point with the minimal temporal error is provided.
30851Bajpai R., Mishra S., Dwivedi S. & Upreti D.K. (2016): Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya. - Scientific Reports, 6:30838 [14 p.].
Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ13C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ13C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent microenvironmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.
30850Grube M., Cardinale M., de Castro Jr J.V., Müller H. & Berg G. (2009): Species-specific structural and functional diversity of bacterial communities in lichen symbioses. - The ISME Journal, 3: 1105–1115.
Lichens are generally considered as mutualisms between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. These partnerships allow light-exposed and long-living joint structures. The unique organization of lichens provides still unexplored environments for microbial communities. To study lichenassociated bacterial communities, we analyze samples, by a polyphasic approach, from three lichen species (Cladonia arbuscula, Lecanora polytropa and Umbilicaria cylindrica) from alpine environments. Our results indicate that bacteria can form highly structured, biofilm-like assemblages on fungal surfaces and reach considerable abundances of up to 108 cells per gram fresh weight. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. Microbial fingerprints performed by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis using universal and group-specific primers show distinct patterns for each lichen species. Characterization of cultivable strains and presence of functional genes in the total fraction suggest the involvement of associated bacteria in nutrient cycling. Ubiquitous nifH genes, which encode the nitrogenase reductase, show a high diversity and are assigned to Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes, for example, Paenibacillus. Cultivable strains mainly belonging to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Paenibacillus show lytic (chitinolytic, glucanolytic, and proteolytic) activities, hormone production (indole-3-acetic acid) as well as phosphate mobilization and antagonistic activity toward other microorganisms. The traditional concept of lichens has to be expanded to consider multiple bacterial partners. Subject Category: microbial ecology and functional diversity of natural habitats. Keywords: lichen symbiosis; FISH; SSCP; bacteria; nitrogen fixation.
30849Alatalo J.M., Jägerbrand A.K. & Molau U. (2016): Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community. - Scientific Reports, 6:21720 [12 p.].
Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.
30848Grube M., Cernava T., Soh J., Fuchs S., Aschenbrenner I., Lassek C., Wegner U., Becher D., Riedel K., Sensen C.W. & Berg G. (2015): Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics. - The ISME Journal, 9: 412–424.
Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions.
30847Jeewon R., Yeung Q.S.Y., Wannasinghe D.N., Rampadarath S., Puchooa D., Wang H.-K. & Hyde K.D. (2018): Hidden mycota of pine needles: Molecular signatures from PCRDGGE and Ribosomal DNA phylogenetic characterization of novel phylotypes. - Scientific Reports, 8:18053 [12 p.].
p. 8: "Another interesting finding is the detection of a particular phylotype (H KF) that has a close phylogenetic affiliation to Lecanora hybocarpa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Metus conglomeratus and Pilophorus species (order Lecanorales). To date, there are no reports of any lichenised fungi closely related to those genera from pine needles. This clearly shows that DGGE analyses allow (i) recovery of other leotiomycetous and lichenised fungi that possibly previously escaped morphological detection and (ii) suggest that diversity among these groups of fungi within pine needles is higher than expected."
30846Colesie C., Green T.G.A., Haferkamp I. & Büdel B. (2014): Habitat stress initiates changes in composition, CO2 gas exchange and C-allocation as life traits in biological soil crusts. - The ISME Journal, 8: 2104–2115.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) are the dominant functional vegetation unit in some of the harshest habitats in the world. We assessed BSC response to stress through changes in biotic composition, CO2 gas exchange and carbon allocation in three lichen-dominated BSC from habitats with different stress levels, two more extreme sites in Antarctica and one moderate site in Germany. Maximal net photosynthesis (NP) was identical, whereas the water content to achieve maximal NP was substantially lower in the Antarctic sites, this apparently being achieved by changes in biomass allocation. Optimal NP temperatures reflected local climate. The Antarctic BSC allocated fixed carbon (tracked using 14CO2) mostly to the alcohol soluble pool (low-molecular weight sugars, sugar alcohols), which has an important role in desiccation and freezing resistance and antioxidant protection. In contrast, BSC at the moderate site showed greater carbon allocation into the polysaccharide pool, indicating a tendency towards growth. The results indicate that the BSC of the more stressed Antarctic sites emphasise survival rather than growth. Changes in BSC are adaptive and at multiple levels and we identify benefits and risks attached to changing life traits, as well as describing the ecophysiological mechanisms that underlie them. Subject Category: Microbial ecology and functional diversity of natural habitats. Keywords: Antarctica; carbon allocation; gas exchange; lichens; life traits; net photosynthesis.
30845Peksa O. (2018): Lišejníky Slavkovského lesa V. – skalní lišejníky. - Erika, 1(2018): 38–43.
30844Vondrák J., Frolov I., Davydov E. A., Yakovchenko L., Malíček J., Svoboda S. & Kubásek J. (2019): The lichen family Teloschistaceae in the Altai-Sayan region (Central Asia). - Phytotaxa, 396 (1): 1–66.
Within the Altai-Sayan region, we identified 103 species of teloschistaceae from 1193 field records supported by herbarium vouchers. the recorded species belong to the subfamilies Xanthorioideae (46 species in 14 genera) and Caloplacoideae (57 species in 17 genera); Teloschistoideae is absent. We divided the 194 surveyed localities into four categories: arid alpine, arid non-alpine, humid alpine, humid non-alpine. Each category has a specific lichen composition and a typical combination of traits. humid non-alpine localities are mostly inhabited by broadly distributed boreal-montane species; humid alpine sites by arctic-alpine lichens; arid non-alpine habitats are preferred by xerophilous Eurasian species and arid alpine sites by xe- rophilous Central asian species with (presumably) large geographic ranges in dry continental asia. Some arid alpine species have a thick crustose thallus with a very thick medulla and cortex; this morphological trait is confined to the Central asian group of lichens and is absent from other climatic regions, such as arctic, boreal or oceanic Eurasia. We compared species diversity in the altai-Sayan region with the alps. both regions differ in species and generic composition and the richness is higher in the latter. Taxonomy: Caloplaca fluviatilis is newly described. New combinations are Pachypeltis insularis, P. pachythal- lina, P. phoenicopta and Variospora sororicida. two of Magnusson’s names are newly synonymized: Caloplaca infestans with Pachypeltis intrudens and Caloplaca kansuensis with C. bicolor. In addition to 22 known genera, we define, provision- ally, 9 groups of species that may merit recognition as genera. Caloplaca epithallina is provisionally placed in Shackletonia, but we do not formally publish a new combination. lichenicolous Pachypeltis phoenicopta and Variospora sororicida are less host-specific than originally thought. Floristics: Caloplaca pratensis is new to Eurasia, Caloplaca helygeoides (= C. diphyodes auct.), C. monacensis and C. soralifera are new to asia. 12 species are new to russia, 9 new to Siberia, 9 new to China, 2 new to Kazakhstan, and 2 new to Xinjiang. outside the studied region Pachypeltis phoenicopta is new to Europe (Spain, Sierra Nevada) and we report the first reliable record of Pachypeltis insularis from Greece (Mt Olympus).
30843Li C., Guo X.D., Lei M., Wu J.Y., Jin J.Z., Zhi X.F., Zhu Z.Y., Rukachaisirikul V., Hu L.H., Wen T.Q. & Shen X. (2017): Thamnolia vermicularis extract improves learning ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by ameliorating both Aβ and Tau pathologies. - Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 38: 9–28.
Considering the complicated pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multi-targets have become a focus in the discovery of drugs for treatment of this disease. In the current work, we established a multi-target strategy for discovering active reagents capable of suppressing both Aβ level and Tau hyperphosphorylation from natural products, and found that the ethanol extract of Thamnolia vermicularis (THA) was able to improve learning ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by inhibiting both Aβ levels and Tau hyperphosphorylation. SH-SY5Y and CHO-APP/BACE1 cells and primary astrocytes were used in cell-based assays. APP/PS1 transgenic mice [B6C3-Tg(APPswe, PS1dE9)] were administered THA (300 mg·kg-1·d-1, ig) for 100 d. After the administration was completed, the learning ability of the mice was detected using a Morris water maze (MWM) assay; immunofluorescence staining, Congo red staining and Thioflavine S staining were used to detect the senile plaques in the brains of the mice. ELISA was used to evaluate Aβ and sAPPβ contents, and Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to investigate the relevant signaling pathway regulation in response to THA treatment. In SH-SY5Y cells, THΑ (1, 10, 20 μg/mL) significantly stimulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and AMPK/raptor/mTOR signaling- mediated autophagy in the promotion of Aβ clearance as both a PI3K inhibitor and an AMPK indirect activator, and restrained Aβ production as a suppressor against PERK/eIF2α-mediated BACE1 expression. Additionally, THA functioned as a GSK3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.32±0.85 μg/mL, repressing Tau hyperphosphorylation. Similar effects on Aβ accumulation and Tau hyperphosphorylation were observed in APP/PS1 transgenic mice treated with THA. Furthermore, administration of THA effectively improved the learning ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and markedly reduced the number of senile plaques in their hippocampus and cortex. The results highlight the potential of the natural product THA for the treatment of AD. Alzheimer’s disease; Thamnolia vermicularis; SH-SY5Y cells; APP/PS1 transgenic mice; senile plaque; cognition; amyloid-β; Tau; autophagy; BACE1; GSK3β; PI3K
30842Rutherford W.A., Painter T.H., Ferrenberg S., Belnap J., Okin G.S., Flagg C. & Reed S.C. (2017): Albedo feedbacks to future climate via climate change impacts on dryland biocrusts. - Scientific Reports, 7:44188 [9 p.].
Drylands represent the planet’s largest terrestrial biome and evidence suggests these landscapes have large potential for creating feedbacks to future climate. Recent studies also indicate that dryland ecosystems are responding markedly to climate change. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) ‒ soil surface communities of lichens, mosses, and/or cyanobacteria ‒ comprise up to 70% of dryland cover and help govern fundamental ecosystem functions, including soil stabilization and carbon uptake. Drylands are expected to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation regimes, and such alterations may impact biocrust communities by promoting rapid mortality of foundational species. In turn, biocrust community shifts affect land surface cover and roughness—changes that can dramatically alter albedo. We tested this hypothesis in a full-factorial warming (+4 °C above ambient) and altered precipitation (increased frequency of 1.2 mm monsoon-type watering events) experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We quantified changes in shortwave albedo via multi-angle, solar-reflectance measurements. Warming and watering treatments each led to large increases in albedo (>30%). This increase was driven by biophysical factors related to treatment effects on cyanobacteria cover and soil surface roughness following treatment-induced moss and lichen mortality. A rise in dryland surface albedo may represent a previously unidentified feedback to future climate.
30841Ouyang H. & Hu C. (2017): Insight into climate change from the carbon exchange of biocrusts utilizing non-rainfall water. - Scientific Reports, 7:2573 [13 p.].
Biocrusts are model ecosystems of global change studies. However, light and non-rainfall water (NRW) were previously few considered. Different biocrust types further aggravated the inconsistence. So carbon-exchange of biocrusts (cyanobacteria crusts-AC1/AC2; cyanolichen crust-LC1; chlorolichen crust-LC2; moss crust-MC) utilizing NRW at various temperatures and light-intensities were determined under simulated and insitu mesocosm experiments. Carbon input of all biocrusts were negatively correlated with experimental temperature under all light-intensity with saturated water and stronger light with equivalent NRW, but positively correlated with temperature under weak light with equivalent NRW. LCPs and R/Pg of AC1 were lowest, followed in turn by AC2, LC2 and MC. Thus AC1 had most opportunities to use NRW, and 2.5 °C warming did cause significant changes of carbon exchange. Structural equation models further revealed that air-temperature was most important for carbonexchange of ACs, but equally important as NRW for LC2 and MC; positive influence of warming on carbon-input in ACs was much stronger than the latter. Therefore, temperature effect on biocrust carbon-input depends on both moisture and light. Meanwhile, the role of NRW, transitional states between ACs, and obvious carbon-fixation differences between lichen crusts should be fully considered in the future study of biocrusts responding to climate change.
30840Evans P.M., Newton A.C., Cantarello E., Martin P., Sanderson N., Jones D.L., Barsoum N., Cottrell J.E., A'Hara S.W. & Fuller L. (2017): Thresholds of biodiversity and ecosystem function in a forest ecosystem undergoing dieback. - Scientific Reports, 7:6775 [9 p.].
Ecological thresholds, which represent points of rapid change in ecological properties, are of major scientific and societal concern. However, very little research has focused on empirically testing the occurrence of thresholds in temperate terrestrial ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we tested whether a number of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem condition metrics exhibited thresholds in response to a gradient of forest dieback, measured as changes in basal area of living trees relative to areas that lacked recent dieback. The gradient of dieback was sampled using 12 replicate study areas in a temperate forest ecosystem. Our results provide novel evidence of several thresholds in biodiversity (namely species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi, epiphytic lichen and ground flora); for ecological condition (e.g. sward height, palatable seedling abundance) and a single threshold for ecosystem function (i.e. soil respiration rate). Mechanisms for these thresholds are explored. As climate-induced forest dieback is increasing worldwide, both in scale and speed, these results imply that threshold responses may become increasingly widespread.
30839Antony-Babu S., Stien D., Eparvier V., Parrot D., Tomasi S. & Suzuki M.T. (2017): Multiple Streptomyces species with distinct secondary metabolomes have identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. - Scientific Reports, 7:11089 [8 p.].
Microbial diversity studies using small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences continue to advance our understanding of biological and ecological systems. Although a good predictor of overall diversity, using this gene to infer the presence of a species in a sample is more controversial. Here, we present a detailed polyphasic analysis of 10 bacterial strains isolated from three coastal lichens Lichina confinis, Lichina pygmaea and Roccella fuciformis with SSU rRNA gene sequences identical to the type strain of Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus. This analysis included phenotypic, microscopic, genetic and genomic comparisons and showed that despite their identical SSU rRNA sequences the strains had markedly different properties, and could be distinguished as 5 different species. Significantly, secondary metabolites profiles from these strains were also found to be different. It is thus clear that SSU rRNA based operational taxonomy units, even at the most stringent cut-off can represent multiple bacterial species, and that at least for the case of Streptomyces, strain de-replication based on SSU gene sequences prior to screening for bioactive molecules can miss potentially interesting novel molecules produced by this group that is notorious for the production of drug-leads.
30838Maier S., Tamm A., Wu D., Caesar J., Grube M. & Weber B. (2018): Photoautotrophic organisms control microbial abundance, diversity, and physiology in different types of biological soil crusts. - The ISME Journal, 12: 1032–1046.
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth’s land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophytedominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession. In this study, we examined whether these categories include a shift in heterotrophic communities and whether this may be linked to altered physiological properties. We analyzed the microbial community composition by means of qPCR and high-throughput amplicon sequencing and utilized flux measurements to investigate their physiological properties. Our results revealed that once 16S and 18S rRNA gene copy numbers increase, fungi become more predominant and alpha diversity increases with progressing succession. Bacterial communities differed significantly between biocrust types with a shift from more generalized to specialized organisms along succession. CO2 gas exchange measurements revealed large respiration rates of late successional crusts being significantly higher than those of initial biocrusts, and different successional stages showed distinct NO and HONO emission patterns. Thus, our study suggests that the photoautotrophic organisms facilitate specific microbial communities, which themselves strongly influence the overall physiological properties of biocrusts and hence local to global nutrient cycles.
30837Wauchope H.S., Shaw J.D. & Terauds A. (2019): A snapshot of biodiversity protection in Antarctica. - Nature Communications, 10:946 [6 p.].
Threats to Antarctic biodiversity are escalating, despite its remoteness and protection under the Antarctic Treaty. Increasing human activity, pollution, biological invasions and the omnipresent impacts of climate change all contribute, and often combine, to exert pressure on Antarctic ecosystems and environments. Here we present a continent-wide assessment of terrestrial biodiversity protection in Antarctica. Despite Antarctic Specially Protected Areas covering less than 2% of Antarctica, 44% of species (including seabirds, plants, lichens and invertebrates) are found in one or more protected areas. However, protection is regionally uneven and biased towards easily detectable and charismatic species like seabirds. Systematic processes to prioritize area protection using the best available data will maximize the likelihood of ensuring long-term protection and conservation of Antarctic biodiversity.
30836Porada P., Lenton T.M., Pohl A., Weber B., Mander L., Donnadieu Y., Beer C., Pöschl U. & Kleidon A. (2016): High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. - Nature Communications, 7:12113 [13 p.].
It has been hypothesized that predecessors of today’s bryophytes significantly increased global chemical weathering in the Late Ordovician, thus reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration and contributing to climate cooling and an interval of glaciations. Studies that try to quantify the enhancement of weathering by non-vascular vegetation, however, are usually limited to small areas and low numbers of species, which hampers extrapolating to the global scale and to past climatic conditions. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate global weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. We estimate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 (km3 rock) yr1, defined here as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. This is around three times larger than today’s global chemical weathering flux. Moreover, we find that simulated weathering is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration. This implies a strong negative feedback between weathering by non-vascular vegetation and Ordovician climate.
30835Porada P., Ekici A. & Beer C. (2016): Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale. - The Cryosphere, 10: 2291–2315.
Bryophyte and lichen cover on the forest floor at high latitudes exerts an insulating effect on the ground. In this way, the cover decreases mean annual soil temperature and can protect permafrost soil. Climate change, however, may change bryophyte and lichen cover, with effects on the permafrost state and related carbon balance. It is, therefore, crucial to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover will react to environmental change at the global scale. To date, current global land surface models contain only empirical representations of the bryophyte and lichen cover, which makes it impractical to predict the future state and function of bryophytes and lichens. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg). The model simulates bryophyte and lichen cover on upland sites. Wetlands are not included. We take into account the dynamic nature of the thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect of the organisms on the soil. We find an average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50 N under the current climate. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7K may be reached. Moreover, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover without dynamic properties only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that (a) bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and (b) a processbased description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect. The advanced land surface scheme, including a dynamic bryophyte and lichen model, will be the basis for an improved future projection of land–atmosphere heat and carbon exchange.
30834Porada P., Pöschl U., Kleidon A., Beer C. & Weber B. (2017): Estimating global nitrous oxide emissions by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based productivity model. - Biogeosciences, 14: 1593–1602.
Nitrous oxide is a strong greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone-depleting agent which is largely emitted by soils. Recently, lichens and bryophytes have also been shown to release significant amounts of nitrous oxide. This finding relies on ecosystem-scale estimates of net primary productivity of lichens and bryophytes, which are converted to nitrous oxide emissions by empirical relationships between productivity and respiration, as well as between respiration and nitrous oxide release. Here we obtain an alternative estimate of nitrous oxide emissions which is based on a global process-based non-vascular vegetation model of lichens and bryophytes. The model quantifies photosynthesis and respiration of lichens and bryophytes directly as a function of environmental conditions, such as light and temperature. Nitrous oxide emissions are then derived from simulated respiration assuming a fixed relationship between the two fluxes. This approach yields a global estimate of 0.27 (0.19–0.35) (TgN2O) year
30833Yahr R., Schoch C.L. & Dentinger B.T. (2016): Scaling up discovery of hidden diversity in fungi: Impacts of barcoding approaches. - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371: 20150336 [11 p.].
The fungal kingdom is a hyperdiverse group of multicellular eukaryotes with profound impacts on human society and ecosystem function. The challenge of documenting and describing fungal diversity is exacerbated by their typically cryptic nature, their ability to produce seemingly unrelated morphologies from a single individual and their similarity in appearance to distantly related taxa. This multiplicity of hurdles resulted in the early adoption of DNA-based comparisons to study fungal diversity, including linking curated DNA sequence data to expertly identified voucher specimens. DNA-barcoding approaches in fungi were first applied in specimen-based studies for identification and discovery of taxonomic diversity, but are now widely deployed for community characterization based on sequencing of environmental samples. Collectively, fungal barcoding approaches have yielded important advances across biological scales and research applications, from taxonomic, ecological, industrial and health perspectives. A major outstanding issue is the growing problem of ‘sequences without names’ that are somewhat uncoupled from the traditional framework of fungal classification based on morphology and preserved specimens. This review summarizes some of the most significant impacts of fungal barcoding, its limitations, and progress towards the challenge of effective utilization of the exponentially growing volume of data gathered from high-throughput sequencing technologies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’.
30832Haughian S.R., Clayden S.R. & Cameron R. (2019): On the distribution and habitat of Fuscopannaria leucosticta in New Brunswick, Canada. - Écoscience, 26(2): 99–112.
Fuscopannaria leucosticta is a rare lichen that exhibits an apparent specificity for old wet forests in eastern Canada, and may, consequently, be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. Estimates of the current distribution and population size are highly uncertain. Effective conservation planning requires improving our understanding of both its current distribution and the factors that influence habitat suitability. We built a MaxEnt distribution model with interpolated climate data, depth to water table mapping, forest inventory data, and herbarium collection data for F. leucosticta in New Brunswick, Canada. We tested model performance via field verifications in high-probability areas with no record of previous surveys. We found F. leucosticta in 13 out of 22 previously unsurveyed locations with a predicted high probability of occurrence. Selected variables included the presence of cedar in the canopy and a lack of recent anthropogenic disturbance, as well as mean annual rainfall and degree days above 0°C. These associations are likely a result of the lichen's low reproductive output and the thermal and hydration requirements of its cyanobacterial photobiont. Our study affirms several previous claims about habitat associations of the species, and provides focus for conservation efforts in the future. Keywords: Pannariaceae; Atlantic Canada; cedar swamp; MaxEnt; climate; epiphyte.
30831Aptroot A., de Beer R., van de Sande C., de Boer D. & van der Goes H. (2010): Wat leveren verschillende inventarisatiemethoden op de droge heide op? Een voorbeeld: de Sallandse Heuvelrug [Different sampling methods compared on the heathlands in Salland]. - De Levende Natuur, 111(5): 214–221.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The heathlands in Salland, mainly known for the last Dutch population of the Grouse, has a considerable floristic value. This was found with a detailed sampling method. The results of various different sampling methods and intensities are compared. Grid-based methods failed to find most of the rarities. Even after 280 regularly dispersed vegetation relevées were made, less than 6% of the Red Listed species present had been found.
30830Aptroot A. & Roos R. (1993): Korstmos-oases in Amsterdam [Epiphytes in Greater Amsterdam]. - De Levende Natuur, 94(4): 130–134.
[in Dutch with English summary]
30829Sipman H.J.M. (1983): Over Megalospora, een tropisch licheen geslacht. - Buxbaumiella, 11: 4–5.
30828Ketner-Oostra R. (1993): Buntgrasduin op Terschelling na 25 jaar weer onderzocht [Grey hairgrass (Corynephorus canesceizs) dune re-investigated]. - De Levende Natuur, 94(1): 10–16.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In recent years in the dutch coastal dunes a vegetation succession is observed, probably influenced by N-deposition and acidification. To collect some observations about these changes, in 1990 a study from 1966 in the non-calcareous, so-called grey dunes on the island of Terschelling, was repeated. On the same secondq barchan as in 1966 three plots were investigated on cover of higher plants, mosses, lichens and bare sand. The results (fig. 2) show a large increase of higher plants (as for example on the western dope from 30% to 90%, with a standing dead of about 35 % ; fig. 2a), and a dramatic decrease in the lichen cover (from 50% to 3% for the same dope). Table 1 shows a comparison of vegetation relevés illustrating the disappearance of pioneer lichen species and humicole Iichen species. Besides a natural succession in the coastal dunes, the influence of N-deposition is probable and most visible on the vitality of Maram (Ammophila arenaria). In the transition of a short Grey hairgrass vegetation into a long grassy vegetation, the fluctuating grazing pressure of rabbits must also be taken into account. For practical advise on saving lichen-rich coastal dune vegetation a programme on dynamic intervention in grassy coastal dunes is started.
30827Ketner-Oostra R. & Huijsman W. (1998): Heeft het stuifeandlandschap in Nederland toekomst? [Drift-sand landscape in the Veluwe (The Netherlands): what is its future?]. - De Levende Natuur, 99(7): 272–277.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] This paper evaluates the effect of small-scale management on the vegetation of the drift-sands at Kootwijkerzand in the Veluwe District of Gelderland, an area with a high aerial nitrogen-deposition. Since the 1960s, the National Forestry Commission has implemented an active management of this inland area of Pleistocene sand dunes (about 300 ha of open sand) to encourage continued drifting of the sand. Self-sown trees were felled, branches were burned on the site and the humus layer was sometimes removed. The effect of the intervention on wind erosion and drifting was greatest in the Southern and central parts of the area. Removal of tree cover encouraged development of Ling {Calluna vulgaris) and Juniper (Juniperus communis) vegetation in the eastern parts. In the north-east and south-east, a varied vegetation developed with Grey hair-grass {Corynephorus canescens), mosses and was rich in lichens. Continuation of small-scale management seems necessary. However only a further lowering of nitrogen deposition can guarantee biodiversity in the drift sand landscape for the future.
30826Ketner-Oostra R. (2002): Branden als beheermaatregel voor vermoste stuifzandvegetatie? [Effects of fire on moss-encroached inland sand dunes]. - De Levende Natuur, 103(2): 37–42.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] After an accidental fire in moss-encroached, inland dry dune grassland on the Veluwe (The Netherlands) vegetation and soil development was monitored for five years. It was found that during these years inside the recovering Grey hairgrass (Corynephorus canescens)- community the encroachment by the invasive neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus had reappeared in flat and undulating dunes. This was most likely connected with the high nitrogen deposition in this region (> 50 kg/ha/y). On only the steep south and east exposed slopes the desired pioneer situation with Polytrichum piliferum arose, where inblowing sand reinforced the effect for regaining lichen diversity. In general, burning as a future management tooi to control moss encroachment and to create a pioneer environment for lichens, will only prove to be effective when the burnt vegetation and the upper soil layer is removed after the fire.
30825Prach K., Fanta J., Lukešová A. & Liška J. (1993): De ontwikkeling van de vegetatie op stuifzand van de Veluwe [The development of the vegetation on mobile sand dunes in the Veluwe]. - Gorteria, 9: 73–79.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The colonisation of mobile sand dunes in the Veluwe, the Netherlands, was studied, as well as the spontaneous development ofthe vegetationinto pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest. Three permanent plots were established, A, B and C, respectively, representing initial and transient stages of the succession. A list of the species is presented, and the abundance of each species in each separate plot is estimated. On account of these data the participation of highertaxonomie groups of species in each stage of the succession is described. It appears that lichens and soil algae appear first onmobile sand dunes, soon to make place for a vegetation consisting of herbs. These in turn suffer a temporary decline oncethe pine forest develops and forms a closed canopy. Their abundance increases again until the forest is about 100 years old. Then, slowly, bryophytes take their place. The flora on the Veluwe sand dunes is poor in species, as compared to the coastal dunes in the Netherlands. This is ascribed to the acidity ofthe extremely nutrient-poorsoil.
30824Ketner-Oostra R. & Sýkora K. (2012): Effect van overstuiving op korstmosrijke duinen op Terschelling [The effect of blown-in sand on lichen-rich coastal dunes in the Wadden district]. - De Levende Natuur, 113(4): 167–173.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] All over the island of Terschelling (The Netherlands), high lichen diversity was found on the fixed, Grey hairgrass (Corynephorus canescens) dominated 'grey dunes' (Natura 2000 habitat). Many Cladonia species and lichens that usually occur as epiphytes, occurred terrestrially on bare sand or moss carpets. However, since the 1980s encroachment with graminoids (Ammophila arenaria and Carex arenaria) and the neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus had changed most of the central dunes. Within the Monitoring program 1995-2005 (extended to 2010) permanent plots (PQ's) were used to study the succession in vegetation composition and soil quality. Spontaneous succession from lichen-rich to moss-dominated stages was related to soil development and acidification in connection with ageing of dune soil. However, continuous inblowing of slightly calcareous sand could stabilize lichen-richness. The moss Campylopus introflexus was not equipped to withstand much stress and was gradually replaced by Hypnum cupressiforme. The best option for maintaining lichen-rich Grey hairgrass vegetation is the blowing-in of slightly calcareous sand from foredunes influenced by sand suppletion. Also new dunes, that came into being on beach planes, provided habitats for terrestrially growing lichens, including epiphytes.
30823Aptroot A. & van Herk K. (2005): Herstel van korstmossen op de heide [Recovery of the lichens in heathlands]. - De Levende Natuur, 106(5): 232–234.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] Terricolous lichens are a characteristic element of Atlantic heathlands. The abundance of species with a predominantly boreo-alpine distribution in Dutch heathlands indicates the affinity with more boreal vegetation types. The lichen diversity is generally highest in small, often accidented sandy enclaves. Attempts to recover the lichen diversity in heathlands which have become depauperate are evaluated. Stripping of the top soil often has good results. Crazing has either no effects (on the recovery of lichens) or a negative effect, especially when cattle densities are high and the area consist of a mosaic of vulnerable, nutrient-poor vegetations and eutrophicated areas.
30822Aptroot A. & van Herk K. (2001): Veranderingen in de korstmosflora van de Nederlandse heiden en stuifzanden [Changes in the lichen flora of Dutch heathlands and inland dune areas]. - De Levende Natuur, 102(4): 150–155.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] In Dutch heathlands and inland dune areas terricolous lichens constitute a large part of the botanical biodiversity. In the still existing inland dunes this diversity is largeiy intact. This also holds for smal! areas of drifting sand in heathlands. In heathlands with a continuous, thick organic layer and in flat heathlands without any terrain variation only a few common species remain. In former times such heathlands were relatively rich. The decrease of terricolous lichens Is greatest in moist, wet heathlands, where nearly all species have vanished. The decrease in diversity is caused by altered management and increased air pollution (ammonia and sulphur dioxide). There are signs of effects of global warming. For most of the habitat types, recommendations for management are given. Moist and dry heathlands may be managed by cutting the sod. Grazing, recently introduced to control the grass and shrub growth, has no positive effect and is sometimes even deleterious. Inland dunes, especially their grassy borders, and areas of drifting sand in heathlands ought to be kept untouched.
30821van Herk K. & Siebel H. (2003): Korstmossen en mossen: spiegels van de veranderingen in het klimaat [Changes in liclien and moss flora in relatlon to climate change]. - De Levende Natuur, 104(3): 79–82.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] Recent changes in the Dutch lichen flora as well as changes in the moss flora appear to be attributable significantly to global warming. Particularly warmtemperate species with a (sub-)atlantic or mediterranean distribution pattern are increasing, while species with a boreo-montane distribution are decreasing.
30820van Herk K., Sparrius L. & Aptroot A. (2005): Hotspots van de korstmossen op de Rode lijst vragen om een betere bescherming [Where are hot spots of Red Listed lichens in The Netherlands?]. - De Levende Natuur, 106(1): 18–23.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] A distribution map showing the number of Red Listed lichens per square kilometer in The Netherlands is presented, mainly based on data collected by the authors. There is a distinctive pattern, in which the coastal dunes, the Utrechtse Heuvelrug and the Veluwe appear to have the highest number of Red Listed species. The coastal dunes are by far the richest, with Red Listed lichens in 70% of the squares, and only 10% in the remaining ecoregions. Some of the most diverse sites are also hot spots for other species groups, for instance calcareous rock outcrops. Other hot spots are situated in areas where lichens constitute the major part of the biodiversity: ancient sea dykes, inland sand dunes and megalithic monuments. Management and conservation measures for these sites should speciflcally target favourable conditions for lichens. Nearly half of the 23 square kilometers with more than 10 Red Listed lichens are found outside nature conservation areas. Most of these sites are granite sea dykes, which are extremely important for lichens. More attention is needed to protect this fragile habitat. Epiphytic lichens on wayside trees are also insufficiently protected. A large number of Red Listed species occur on such trees.
30819van Herk K., Aptroot A. & van den Boom P. (1996): Hunebedden van grote betekenis voor lichenen [Dutch megalithic monuments important for lichens]. - De Levende Natuur, 97(5): 179–184.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] The Dutch megalithic monuments, called 'hunebedden', have been investigated for their lichen flora and vegetation in 1993-1994. They provide a unique environment for lichens in The Netherlands, because siliceous outcrops are absent otherwise. Many Red List species occur mostly or only on these boulders, including the nearly endemic Lecidea promixta. Many species are threatened by tourism or shading and some species are found to be extinct. Unexpected was the discovery of many usually corticolous species, such as Buellia griseovirens and Gyalideopsis anastomosans, and species reflecting the pollution by ammonia from manure, like Xanthoria polycarpa. Endococcus propinquus (Koerber) D. Hawksw., Fuscidea praeruptorum (Du Rietz & Magn.) Wirth & Vezda and Thelocarpon coccosporum Lettau were not previously reported from The Netherlands.
30818Sparrius L., Bijlsma R.-J., de Bruijn H. & van Herk K. (2006): Mossen en korstmossen zeggen waar het op staat. - De Levende Natuur, 107(6): 233–236.
popular paper; [in Dutch]
30817van Herk K., Spier L., Aptroot A. & Sparrius L. (2000): Achteruitgang van de korstmossen in het Speulderbos Aan mijn selectie toevoegen [The lichens of the Speulderbos area, past and present]. - De Levende Natuur, 101(5): 149–154.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] The Speulderbos area is the most important site for woodland lichens in the Netherlands. Many rare lichen species are known to occur here. A comparison is made between the species composition in the late sixties and recent data. Among the 96 recorded epiphytic lichen species since c. 1960, 25 species occur on the Red List. Eleven of these species have now disappeared, fourteen are still present. All seven formerly occurring Usnea species have vanished. Changes are attributed to increasing air pollution with ammonia (negative), increasing shade (negative), and a policy to leave dead and decaying wood (positive). In the near future more emphasis bas to be laid on management which results in small open patches in the forest canopy in order to increase sunlight on the forest floor. Trees with rare lichen species need to be mapped.
30816van Herk C.M. (2000): Korstmossen in de stad [Lichens in the city]. - De Levende Natuur, 101(6): 201–202.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] Lichen-deserts, formerly occurring in and around industrial cities, have disappeared during the last decade. At this moment, rows of trees with 20 to 25 lichen species are a common sight in cities. Several species typical for nutrient poor circumstances and species preferring warm habitats have invaded these areas, especially on well illuminated young roadside trees in the outskirts.
30815van Dobben H.F. (1990): Effekten van luchtverontreiniging op korstmossen, resultaten van meerjarige studies [Effects of air pollution on lichens, results of long term studies]. - De Levende Natuur, 91(4): 179–183.
popular paper; [in Dutch with English summary: ] Use of epiphytic lichens as bio-indicatots for air pollution dates back from the 1930's. In 1974 a country-wide inventory of epiphytic lichens was carried out in The Netherlands (fig. 1). The number of species per 5x5 km2 grid cell is probably largely determined by the SO2-concenttation (fig. 2). Comparison of recent data on species distribution with data from the 19th century shows a strong decline from ca 1900 up to ca 1980. After 1980 a slow recovery takes place, probably due to a decrease in atmospheric SO2-concentration. At the same time, nitrophytic species strongly increase as a result of increasing NH3-concentration.
30814van der Reest P.J. (1985): Het Rammegors, de vegetatie van een schorrengebied na de bedijking [Rammegors, the vegetationof a saltwater tidal area after the embankment]. - Gorteria, 12: 217–224.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Due to the ‘Delta Works’ many salt marsh vegetations are lost. Great environmental and vegetation changes take place. The development of a new vegetation is studied in the Rammegors (Van der Reest, 1983). Some features are discussed. Development on former salt marshes leads to a dense vegetation of tall perennial weeds. Shaded by its leaf canopy some fern species appear. The establishment of Sonchus palustris takes place under wet conditions in former salt marsh depressions. Many epiphytic lichens demonstrate a terrestrial growth habit on former sand flats. They disappear in the course of vegetation succession. The vegetation of frequently inundated saline soils shows a clear zonation pattern. Four vegetation zones are distinguished, corresponding with Puccinellietum, Juncetum gerardii, Agrostio-Trifolietum fragiferi and Caricion davallianae communities. The vegetation of moist sand flat soils shows some resemblence with wet calcareous dune slack vegetation. A proper nature management in the Rammegors will increase its significance as a nature reserve.
30813de Bakker A.J. (1987): Physcia stellaris (L.) Ach. in Nederland [Physcia stellaris (L.) Ach. in the Netherlands]. - Gorteria, 13: 210–216.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Since 1980, the lichen Physcia stellaris (L.) Ach. has been found in the Netherlands on 26 sites, which are nearly all strongly eutrophicated. Herbarium collections indicate that the species formerly appeared in a rather different habitat. Because of the continuing eutrophication of tree bark by ammonia, many new records of Physcia stellaris are to be expected.
30812van Dobben H. (1984): Groeisnelheid van Parmelia sulcata in relatie tot luchtverontreiniging. - Buxbaumiella, 15: 52–53.
30811Dirkse G., During H. & van Melick H. (1978): Verslag van het mossenwerkgroepkamp te Buzenol in 1976 . - Buxbaumiella, 7: 6–53.
Report on a meeting of Dutch bryological group in Belgium. Lobaria pulmonaria also recorded (p. 28) [in Dutch]
30810van Hoven F.J.J. (1846): Opgave van eenige planten, in de omstreken van ’s Hertogenbosch verzameld. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 1, 1: 273–279.
Netherlands; two lichens recorded (Parmelia obscurata, Lobaria pulmonaria)
30809van Dobben H. (1992): Kartering van lichenen in Europa. - Buxbaumiella, 27: 20–21.
30808Heimans J. (1965): Dr. A.J.M. Garjeanne. - De Levende Natuur, 68(9): 217–218.
Obituary, Biography [in Dutch]
30807Garjeanne A.J.M. (1939): Cladonia's met rode sporenvruchten. - De Levende Natuur, 43(12): 353–359.
popular paper on red fruited cup-lichens (Cladonia sect. cocciferae); Netherlands [in Dutch]
30806Garjeanne A.J.M. (1951): Cladonia als epiphyl. - De Levende Natuur, 54(6): 107–110.
30805Garjeanne [A.J.M.] (1910): De Muurflora van Thorn. - De Levende Natuur, 15(9): 183–184.
30804Bleij B. & Biesmeijer K. (1992): Verticale verdeling en ecologie van cryptogame epifyten in Mora excelsa-bos bij Mabura Hill, Guyana. - Buxbaumiella, 27: 24–27.
30803Abeleven T.H.A.J. (1891): Flora van Nijmegen. 2e gedeelte. Plantae cellulares. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 2, 5: 552–596.
Netherlands; in Dutch
30802Anonymus [Valckenier Suringar J.] (1927): De botanicus Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart en zijn bezoek aan ons land in 1782. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 3, 36: 116–149.
biography [in Dutch]
30801Garjeanne [A.J.M.] (1938): Korstmossen. III. - De Levende Natuur, 42(10): 286–294.
popular paper
30800Garjeanne [A.J.M.] (1937): Korstmossen. - De Levende Natuur, 42(7): 193–203.
popular paper
30799Quispel A. (1946): The mutual relations between algae and fungi in lichens. - Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Néerlandais, 40: 413–541.
1. The fungi which live in symbiosis with the aerial proto-pleurococcoid algae were isolated in pure culture. It appeared that there existed a great similarity between the morphological characters of these fungi and true lichen fungi. Yet the growthvelocity was much better. In consequence they formed an excellent object for the study of the symbiosis. 2. It appeared that these fungi could develop on media containing sugars, polyalcohols or starch, that some of them could use peptones as sources of carbon. Cellulose and pectin were not attacked, nor were salts of organic acids. 3. The fungi could not fix atmospheric nitrogen, there was no preference for organic sources of nitrogen over ammonium salts. 4. They could not develop in pure synthetic culture solutions, the addition of some nutrilites was absolutely indispensable. Partially these nutrilites could be identified with aneurin and ft alanin. 5. The symbiontic algae (Apatococcus and a number of Cystococcus gonidia) can provide these nutrilites (or similar) to the fungi. 6. The fungus of Xanthoria parietina showed the same need of some nutrilites. It appeared that these nutrilites belonged to the bios group. 7. The Cystococcus gonidia of Xanthoria parietina, Physcia pulverulenta and Parmelia acetabulum grew much better on organic substrates than on inorganic media. When the inoculation was not too heavy, after three months not a trace of development could be observed in culture solutions without organic substances. Simple carbohydrates were the best sources of carbon; there was no marked preference for organic sources of nitrogen. There was no reason to suppose any fixing of atmospheric nitrogen. 8. The heterotrophic development of these gonidia was favoured by the addition of extracts from the symbiontic fungi but also by the addition of yeast-extract. These extracts were not absolutely necessary, their only influence consisted of a shortening of the lag-phase in growth. The active factors of these extracts partially belonged to the bios-group, in some cases nicotinic acid had a marked influence. Partially the effect might have been caused by the presence of suitable sources of nitrogen. 9. The autotrophic development only was possible (or was highly stimulated) by the presence of ascorbic acid, dioxymaleic acid and (most probably still) by other dienolic compounds, (glucoreducton). As these substances are easily oxidized by the air the effect was most pronounced, w'hen the cultures were incubated in an atmosphere of hydrogen with 5 % carbon-dioxyde in the light. Then only too y % ascorbic acid gave a development, which was comparable to the development on organic culture solutions. 10. Upon these facts a mutualistic theory of the symbiosis was based, in which apart from the provision with assimilation substances of the fungus by the algae the exchange of nutrilites played an important role. 11. A new method for the synthesis of the symbiosis is described, which makes it possible to change the humidity and the concentration of the food-substances at will. 12. The fungi which live in symbiosis with the proto-pleurococcoid algae could produce no lichenic acids or similar substances, when cultivated under the most varying circumstances. 13. On the other hand it appeared that the alga Apatococcus minor synthesizes a remarkable metabolic product provisionally named apatococcin. 14. A chemical investigation of this substance showed that it possesses the following tentative formula C23H4i04N, that it possesses one carboxylic group esterified with methanol or ethanol, that it most probably possesses a long paraffin chain. The function of the nitrogen could not be elucidated, the neutral character of the substance made probable, that the basic function of this nitrogen was anyhow bound by an acid group of the molecule. A relationship with certain aliphatic lichenic acids is probable. 15. The literature concerning the problem of the production of lichenic acids is reviewed and it was concluded that as certain fungi can produce certain lichenic acids, and certain algae can produce similar substances in pure culture the lichenic acids cannot be regarded as the result of a specific metabolism of the symbiosis. We have only the right to speak about an accumulation of these substances as a result of the symbiosis in some cases. 16. The water-household of the Cystococcus gonidia in pure culture was examined; it appeared that these algae most probably can endure the desiccation on the natural substrates of lichens without the protection of the fungus. After a week drying over concentrated sulphuric acid, they had not lost their vitality. they could develop in a relative humidity of the atmosphere higher than 91 %, while high temperatures only could be endured, when the relative humidity was low. 17. There is only little difference between the imbibition-curves of the lichen-thallus, the lichen-fungus and the lichen-gonidia of the same lichen-species. 18. The protective influence of the fungus against desiccation of the algae only is very small and can only be perceived when the desiccation is not too intense. 19. The lichen-symbiosis is compared with other cases of symbiosis and it is concluded, that the differences are only apparent, while there is a great similarity as in all other symbiosis the exchange of nutrilites plays one of the most important roles. 20. This similarity still can be observed, when we extend the definition of symbiosis towards all dependences of vital units belonging to the same or to different species as has been proposed by Baas-Becking and for which definition some arguments are brought together in this paper.
30798Nooren M.J. (2010): Uit de gebieden van Staatsbosbeheer. - De Levende Natuur, 111(3): 156.
popular paper in Dutch
30797van den Bosch R.B. (1846): Enumeratio plantarum Zeelandiae Belgicae indigenarum quarta. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 1, 1(1): 84–115.
Netherlands; lichens at p. 114-115
30796von Arx J.A. (1954): Revision einiger Gattungen der Ascomyceten. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 3(1): 83–93.
This paper gives a revision of some genera of the Ascomycetes, decribed as new by Petrak and other authors. The following genera are synonymous and must be placed in the earlier described genera: Aloysiella Mattir. et Sacc. (1908) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Atopospora Petr. (1925) = Rehmiodothis Theiss. et Syd. (1915) Arnaudiella Petr. (1927) = Seynesiella Arn. (1918) Cucurbidothis Petr. (1921) = Gibberidea Fuck. (1869) Dibotryon Theiss. et Syd. (1915) = Apiosporina v. Hohn. (1910) Dothidotthia v. Hohn. (1919) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Episphaerella Petr. (1924) = Eudimeriolum Speg. (1912) Lecideopsis (Almq.) Rehm (1896) = Arthonia Achar. (1806) Metacoleroa Petr. (1927) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Montagnina v. Hohn. (1910) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Neodimerium Petr. (1950) = Parodiopsis Maubl. (1915) Neogibbera Petr. (1947) = Acantharia Theiss. et Syd. (1918) Phragmodimerium Petr, et Cif. (1932) = Philonectria Kara (1914) Pseudodimerium Petr. (1924) = Dimerium Sacc. et Syd. (1905) Pseudotthia P. Henn. (1899) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Punctillum Petr, et Syd. (1924) = Stigmatea Fr. (1849) Seynesia Sacc. emend. Petr. (1927) = Pemphidium Mont, (obligate) Xenomeris Syd. (1924) = Gibbera Fr. (1849) Xenostigmella Petr. (1950) = Balladynopsis Theiss. et Syd. (1917) Xerodiscus Petr. (1943) = Arthonia Achar. (1806) As far as necessary, the type species of these genera and some other species have been renamed.
30795Barkman J.J., Doing H. & Segal S. (1964): Kritische Bemerkungen und Vorschläge zur Quantitativen Vegetationsanalyse. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 13: 394–419.
Starting from the general principles of the Zurich-Montpellier school for the description of vegetation by means of field estimations of abundance, cover etc., the authors criticise the scales adopted by most workers, and some of their interpretations. The following analytical characters of vegetation, and methods of estimation, are discussed; height (layering, recognition of synusiae), peripheral and internal cover, density, abundance, sociability, vitality, fertility, and phenological stage of taxa or layers. The main weaknesses of the usual scales for estimation of these characters (see list of references) are considered to be: 1. The use of combined scales for estimation of abundance and cover, and of vitality and fertility. 2. The lack of equivalence in the range of values for each class in most of the existing scales. 3. The limited range of some of the scales, and the absence of provision for more detailed estimations. 4. The inexact definition of degrees of abundance and sociability in the Braun- Blanquet scale. 5. The confusion about the concept of density. A number of proposals is made for the use of scales with closer intervals, based on decimal, logarithmic or other systems. These leave less room for personal interpretation, and are more suitable for subsequent calculations and autecological studies. A method of reducing errors by carrying out certain estimations in two successive steps is suggested, e.g. by estimating peripheral and internal percentage cover (Fig. 1) separately and multiplying both values to obtain real cover. The proposed scales have been tested in routine field work by the authors and other workers in a wide range of vegetation types. An example is given of an analysis of Dutch coastal sand dune vegetation in which some of the proposed scales have been applied. The authors hope that their proposals for a more accurate description of vegetation will help to consolidate the basic principles underlying the Braun-Blanquet system of classification.
30794Koopman J. & Meijer K. (1992): De mosflora van lepen in Midden-Friesland. - Buxbaumiella, 28: 17–23.
30793Segal S. (1961): Ramalina intermedia in Nederland. - Gorteria, 4: 118–119.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The lichen Ramalina intermedia Del. apud Lamy was found near Apeldoorn on a decayed wall of an old castle in the possession of the Royal family. The wall, rising up from the castle moat, dates from the 16th century, but remained covered with soil for several centuries after the moat had been filled up with earth, only to be dug out again during restoration work in 1904. R. intermedia has not been previously recorded from the Netherlands. At the Apeldoorn site it occurs together with Gyroweisia tenuis, a moss of rare occurrence in this country.
30792Ketner-Oostra R. (1994): De terrestrische korstmosvegetatie van het Kootwijkerzand. - Buxbaumiella, 35: 4–15.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] At the initiative of the Dutch State Forest Commission a survey was made of lichen vegetation at Kootwijkerzand, an inland sand dune area at The Veluwe, a huge pleistocene deposit in the eastern central part of The Netherlands. Most of the very poor soil has been planted with pine trees ( Pinus sylvestris), but part is heath and part is still active aeolian sand. This part consists of bare drift-sand tracts with sparse grassland on the more stabilized parts, classified as Grey hairgrass community (Corynephorus canecens) with mosses and lichens. Since the nineteen seventies increasing air pollution caused by nearby intensive cattle and poultry farming (0-85 kg N/ha/year) has affected both the woods, the heath area and the lichen-steppe. By means of vegetation-relevés (4 m²) eight types (with subtypes) of moss and lichen vegetation could be described (summation table). Eight permanent plots were laid out and a basic set of soil samples was analysed by a professional laboratory. A programme both for vegetation and soil was proposed, to monitor the expected diminishing annimal husbandry air pollution from the nearby “Gelderse Vallei” in the future.
30791Sparrius L. (2013): Hoe exotische mossen ons land in komen. - Kijk op Exoten, 1(4): 2.
popular paper
30790Sparrius L. (2014): Overleven exotische korstmossen op aangeplante bomen?. - Kijk op Exoten, 2(2): 13.
popular paper
30789Brand M. & Sipman H. (1977): Lichenen van de voorjaarsexcursie naar de Betuwe 1975. - Buxbaumiella, 6: 28–31.
30788Nannenga E.T. (1940): The importance of the gonidia to the classification of the lichens. - Recueil des travaux botaniques néerlandais, 36: 538–542.
30787Nannenga E.T. (1940): Lijst van korstmossen en schimmels, tijdens de Unio 1939 waargenomen. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, 50: 53.
30786Kortselius J. & Spier L. (1992): Eendagsexcursie naar de Bommelerwaard op 6 april 1991. - Buxbaumiella, 29: 21–24.
30785van Eeden F.W. (1864): De kryptogamen. - Album der natuur, 13: 65–87.
30784de Bakker A.J. (1989): Effects of ammonia emission on epiphytic lichen vegetation. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 38: 337–342.
Lichen vegetation on oak was studied along two transects from a nature reserve with a low ammonia emission into an intensive animal husbandry area with high ammonia emission. Acidophytic species were dominant in the nature reserve, whereas nitrophytic species dominated in the agricultural area. Bark analysis showed the pH to be more important for species composition than the ammonium concentration. Ammonia emission favours nitrophytic species by raising the pH of oak bark, which is normally in the range 3-5-5 0. This phenomenon has been observed in many sites in The Netherlands, where it replaces earlier acidification by sulphur dioxide.
30783Treub M. (1874): Onderzoekingen over de natuur der Lichenen. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 2, 1: 336–359.
30782Monaci F., Bargagli R. & Gasparo D. (1997): Air pollution monitoring by lichens in a small medieval town of central Italy. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 46: 403–412.
Air quality and the deposition pattern of trace elements were assessed in Siena (Central Italy) using epiphytic lichens. Air quality was assessed in terms of the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) based on frequency counts of lichen species in 25 stations in the urban area. Forty-six species of epiphytic lichens were found. There were no lichen desert areas and some widespread species of lichens which could facilitate future surveillance monitoring programmes were identified. Trace element deposition was estimated by analysing the thalli of Parmelia caperata, collected in 28 urban sites. Among the elements considered (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S, Zn) Pb was the most widespread, indicating that despite the progressive introduction of unleaded fuel this metal is still emitted copiously (and/or resuspended) by traffic. The results of the two biomonitoring approaches used in the study area were compared.
30781van Dobben H.F. & de Bakker A.J. (1996): Re-mapping epiphytic lichen biodiversity in The Netherlands: effects of decreasing SO2 and increasing NH3. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45: 55–71.
In a follow-up of De Wit’s (1976) inventory of epiphytic lichens in The Netherlands, c. 17% of the area covered in that study was re-inventoried, using a comparable method. A strong increase in species diversity became apparent, probably caused by a decrease in S02 concentration. In a comparison of various indicators for S02 concentration derived from the epiphytic vegetation (number of species per sample point and number of species per 5x5 km2, or composite measures based on multivariate statistics), the number of species per 5x5 km2 grid square had the strongest correlation with the measured S02 concentration. A second factor affecting epiphytic vegetation was the atmospheric NH3 concentration. High concentration of this compound caused a dominance of nitrophytic species. The rate of change in the epiphyte vegetation between 1988 and 1989 was consistent with the rate of decrease of the S02 concentration during the preceding 5 years.
30780van Dobben H. (1993): Monitoring van epifyten in Nederland 1977-1990. - Buxbaumiella, 31: 5–6.
30779Koutstaal B.P. & Sipman H.J.M. (1977): De korstmossen van de Middelplaten. - De Levende Natuur, 80: 248–260.
30778Sipman H. & Brand M. (1978): Verslag van de eerste nederlandse lichenologische excursie, 3-4 april 1976, naar Putten. - Buxbaumiella, 7: 55–68.
30777Brand M. & Loode (1979): De voorjaarsexcursie naar Twente en het gebied rond Bentheim. - Buxbaumiella, 8: 4–19.
30776Brand M. (1980): De lichenologische najaarsexcursie 1977 naar N.O. Friesland en N.W. Groningen. - Buxbaumiella, 9: 38–46.
30775Spier L. (1992): Excursie Denekamp, 19 en 20 september 1992, lichenologisch verslag. - Buxbaumiella, 29: 43–47.
30774Sipman H. & Brand M. (1977): De korstmossenin in de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen. - Buxbaumiella, 6: 54–60.
30773Brand M. & Sipman H. (1975): De lichenen van de Veluwe-excursie. - Buxbaumiella, 4: 37–45.
30772Bakker S. (1992): Lichenologische beginnersexcursie Vianen. - Buxbaumiella, 29: 25–27.
Netherlands, report from an excursion with a list of species
30771Brand M. (1979): De lichenologische herfstexcursie 1976 naar Drente. - Buxbaumiella, 8: 49–59.
30770Brand M. (1979): Aanvullingen en verbeteringen voor de lichenenflora van Ameland en Vlieland. - Buxbaumiella, 8: 42–47.
30769van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M. & Aptroot A. (1994): Standaardlijst van de Nederlandse Korstmossen, Aanvullingen en Wijzigingen II. - Buxbaumiella, 34: 35–39.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] Additions to and changes in the Dutch lichen checklist are briefly presented. More detailed information has been presented elsewhere (v.d. Boom et al. 1993). The total number of accepted taxa of lichens (including lichenicolous fungi) in The Netherlands is now 724.
30768Aptroot A. & van Heesch W. (1996): Korstmossen en mossen op dijken en iepen bij Hoorn (Noord-Holland). - Buxbaumiella, 40: 28–31.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] The dykes and Ulmus trees along the IJsselmeer near Hoorn (Prov. Noord-Holland) proved relatively rich in lichen species. The only rare species found on Ulmus was Singula affinis. The following three species, Bacidia viridifarinosa, Caloplaca britannica, and Leptogium teretiusculum are reported for the first time from the Netherlands. The Caloplaca was found on exposed granite, the Bacidia and the Leptogium on sheltered brick between granite boulders of the dyke. Also some hygrophytic mosses are present, including Rhynchostegiella jacquinii.
30767Aptroot (1992): Lichenen in Kennemerland, tevens verslag van de lichenologische najaarsexcursie 1991. - Buxbaumiella, 29: 29–36.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] The area of Kennemerland is lichenologically among the richest and best known in The Netherlands, with 252 species on 250 square km. The lichen Bacidia subfuscula and the lichen parasites Didymellopsis collematum and Micropeltopsis peltigericola are reported from The Netherlands for the first time.
30766Mark K., Cornejo C., Keller C., Flück D. & Scheidegger C. (2016): Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation. - Genome, 59: 685–704.
Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted 18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primerswhenamplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential ofDNAbarcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database—currently the most complete database for lichenforming fungi—can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras). Key words: 454 pyrosequencing, DNA barcoding, intragenomic variation, internal transcribed spacer, lichenized fungi.
30765Siebel H.N., Aptroot A., Dirkse G.M., van Dobben H.F., van Melick H.M.H. & Touw A. (1992): Rode Lijst van in Nederland verdwenen en bedreigde mossen en korstmossen [Red Data List of extinct, endangered and vulnerable mosses and lichens in the Netherlands]. - Gorteria, 18(1): 1–20.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Lists are presented of threatened bryophytes and lichens in the Netherlands. The threatened species are classified into 5 Red Data categories (0 Extinct, 1 Endangered, 2 Most vulnerable, 3 Vulnerable, 4 Potentially threatened). The list of threatened bryophytes comprises 274 species and varieties, which is about 50% of the bryophyte flora of the Netherlands. The list of threatened lichens comprises 367 species, 58% of the lichen flora of the Netherlands. Not only epiphytic species are heavily threatened, but also species growing on soil and stones. Among the most threatened bryophyte and lichen habitats many are characteristic for the Netherlands, like roadside trees, heath lands, quag fens, and sand dune valleys. The causes of the decrease of threatened bryophytes and lichens are briefly discussed. Most important causes are air pollution, eutrofication and lowering of the ground water table.
30764Brand M. (1979): De lichenen van de excursie naar Texel. - Buxbaumiella, 8(1): 32–41.
30763van Dobben H. & Sipman H. (1980): De lichenen van de excursie naar Aywaille, 1977. - Buxbaumiella, 9(1): 16–23.
30762Sipman H. & Brand M. (1973): De lichenen. - Buxbaumiella, 3(1): 21–25.
In Dutch
30761de Bakker A. (1986): Veranderingen in de epifytische korstmos-flora van het Staelduinse bos in de periode 1949-1984. - Gorteria, 13: 70–74.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] In 1949, 1973 and 1984 the wood of Staelduinen near Hook of Holland was surveyed for epiphytic lichens. After a sharp decline in the quality of the epiphytic flora from 1949 till 1973, a slight improvement was noticed in 1984, corresponding with a decrease of the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the air (fig. 1). It will probably take many more years for the epiphytic lichen flora to regain the 1949-quality-level.
30760Barkman J.J. & van der Voo E.E. (1968): Lycopodium annotinum en Cetraria pinastri bij het Meeuwenveen (Zuidwolde, Dr.). - Gorteria, 2(1): 4–9.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] This paper discusses the first find of Lycopodium annotinum in a natural habitat in the Netherlands, viz. a moist Calluna-Erica-Molinia-heath with Salix aurita on a gentle N-facing slope. Nearby the extremely rare Cetraria pinastri was found on twigs of Calluna. Hitherto both species were only known from woodland sites.
30759Pos R. (1968): Cetraria nivalis (L.) Ach. op het Kootwijkerzand. - Gorteria, 4(4): 45–48.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The author mentions a new Lichen for the Netherlands, Cetraria nivalis (L.) Ach., found in the Kootwijkerzand, Veluwe (prov. Gelderland).
30758Groenhart P. (1936): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der javanischen Flechten I-III. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 3, 46(3): 690–784.
Indonesia; Java
30757Groenhart P. (1940): Hoe en waaran zijn korstmossen te herkennen? I. - De Tropische Natuur, 29: 191–195.
30756Daniëls F.J.A. & Ferwerda H.F. (1972): Three interesting lichen finds from Southeast Greenland. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 21(2): 166–168.
Stereocaulon condensatum Hoffm. is recorded as new to Greenland, Physcia orbicularis (Neck.) Poetsch as new to the entire East Coast, and Physcia intermedia Vain, as new to the Southeast Coast. Descriptions of their habitats are given.
30755Groenhart P. (1941): Oropogon loxensis Th. Fr.. - De Tropische Natuur, 30(9): 144–145.
30754Maas Geesteranus R.A. (1942): Lichenen. - Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief, ser. 3 , 52(1): 43–44.
30753Jansen J. (1993): Korstmossen in de Serra da Estrela. - Buxbaumiella, 31: 7–15.
[in Dutch with English abstract: ] A survey is presented of lichens collected from phytosociological relevés made in the upper parts of Serra da Estrela (Portugal). A total number of 142 species has been found and listed in a table. It concerns terrestrial and epiphytic lichens from heathland (type A and B), Dwarf juniperscrub (C) and open vegetation (D). Terrestrial species are included in a description of vascular plant communities (type A up to D); epiphytic species are separately described as epiphytic communities (type 1 up to 4). Type 2 and 3 seem to be closely related to resp. Pseudevernietum furfuraceae and Parmeliopsidetum ambiguae. Main phorophytes are Erica australis, Erica arborea and Juniperus alpina. The collections are preserved in the private herbarium of Dr. A. Aptroot.
30752Timmerman H. (2009): Op zoek naar korstmossen in Flevoland. Lichenen in het nieuwe land. - Natura, 106(6): 176–178.
in Dutch; popular paper
30751Barendregt A., van den Dries P.J.L. & Sipman H.J.M. (1982): A new chemical strain of Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. (Lichenes). - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 31(5-6): 491–494.
The well-known and widespread lichen species Cladoniafurcata (Huds.) Schrad. is usually very constant in its chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid is its main secundary metabolite, sometimes accompanied by atranorin. Recently a new chemical strain, characterised by the presence of psoromic acid instead of fumarprotocetraric acid or atranorin, was found in Portugal by the first two authors during phytosociological investigations of heath vegetations. The plants are preserved in the herbarium of the Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Utrecht (U), leg. Barendregt & v.d. Dries nr. 1-2 (U). Morphologically the plants with psoromic acid represent the slender form of C. furcata. which is the predominant form in lowland western Europe (Fig. 1). The podetia are c. 3 cm long and up to 0.8 mm wide, branching regularly but not very density dichotomously, and olivaceous green to brownish in colour. Their habit varies from creeping and loosely tufted to erect and densily tufted. Squamules are present only occasionally, on the lower parts of the podetia, and are roundish with a crenulated margin, up to c. 1.2 mm wide.
30750Loppi S. & de Dominicis V. (1996): Lichens as long-term biomonitors of air quality in central Italy. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45(4): 563–570.
The results of a long-term study (data of 1978 and 1993) performed in central Italy using epiphytic lichens both as indicators and monitors (accumulators) are presented. Floristic data showed that air quality in the study area did not change markedly in this 15-year period and is currently fairly good. Similarly, the concentrations of trace elements in Parmelia caperata thalli showed no substantial change, with values similar to those in lichens of unpolluted areas. The concentration of 137Cs in P. caperata and Lobaria pulmonaria thalli doubled after the Chernobyl accident, but was low compared to other European areas.
30749Daniëls F.J.A. & Sipman H.J. (1975): Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. also found in Southeast Greenland. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 24: 481–483.
Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. is reported from Southeast Greenland. Its distribution in Greenland is mapped.A note is made on its ecology and distribution.
30748Ketner-Oostra R. (1972): Het terrestrisch voorkomen van Alectoria fuscescens Gyeln. s.l. in de droge duinen van Terschelling. - Gorteria, 6(6): 103–107.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Alectoria fuscescens Gyeln. s.l. [syn. A. jubata (L.) Ach. and A. positiva (Gyeln.) Motyka] has been found in the dry dunes of the West Frisian Island of Terschelling. The lichen grows in a vegetation belonging to a pioneer stage of the Violo-Corynephoretum Westhoff (1943)1947 or a succession stage of this association to the Polypodio-Empetretum (Meltzer 1941) Westhoff 1947. The last-named vegetation type is characterized by mats of Dicranum scoparium Hedw. to and between which A. fuscescens is attached. There are several stations where the lichen seems to flourish.
30747Daniëls F.J.A. & Pellikaan G. (1978): Een recente vondst van Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. in Nederland. - Gorteria, 9(2): 25–28.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] A recent find of Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. is reported from the Netherlands. Remarks are made on the ecology and distribution of this species.
30746Hennipman E. (1968): Cladonia incrassata Flörke, een licheen nieuw voor ons land. - Gorteria, 4(2): 28–29.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] The lichen Cladonia incrassata Florke proves to be indigenous to the Netherlands. It was collected in several localities in the eastern part of the country, usually growing on peaty soil or in pine forests near the base of old trees, often together with Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.
30745Sipman H. (1977): Nieuwe Cladonia-soorten voor Nederland. - Gorteria, 8: 206–211.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Six new Cladoniae for the Netherlands are mentioned and their main characteristics described. Cladonia cenotea (Ach). Schaer., C. stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar et Vezda, C. subcervicornis (Vain.) DuRietz and C. symphycarpia Fik. are recorded from a single find. The first two were already labelled correctly, but not yet published. C. gonecha (Ach.) Asah. and C. rei Schaer. have been recognized by chemical methods from several localities, humous sites then C. rei seems to prefer less acid and less C. subulata (L.) Wigg., which closely resembles it.
30744Daniëls F.J.A. (1968): Lichens collected during a Dutch botanical East Greenland expedition to the Angmagssalik area in 1966. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 17(5): 345–348.
In the summer of 1966 three students, bachelors in botany, of the State University of Utrecht, Netherlands, made botanical investigations in the Angmagssalik area (65° N.lat.-67 °20' N. lat.) in South-east Greenland. The main purpose was to carry out floristical and ecological investigations, while special attention was paid to the altitudinal belts in the vegetation on mountain slopes. The fieldwork will be continued in 1968. From the botanical collection the lichens were identified by the author and are listed here, except some critical species of which the determinations have not been finished yet. The number of samples collected amounts to ca. 300, most of them taken from vegetation analyses. All samples will be incorporated in the Herbarium of the State University of Utrecht, Netherlands.
30743Jahns M., Beltman H.A. & van der Knaap P. (1969): Cladonia ecmocyna Nyl. – Investigations on the ontogeny. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 18(5): 627–633.
1. The ontogeny of the podetium and the apothecium in Cladonia ecmocyna Nyl. is investigated morphologically and anatomically. The podetia are formed by generative tissue. Sexual organs and apothecia are only formed at the top of grown podetia. The development is the same as in Cladonia chlorophaea, described by Jahns 1969. 2. The phyllocladia are formed by growth of the algal layer of the podetium. In the process a piece of the cortex is torn free at the basal side of the primordium of the phyllocladium and bent upwards. 3. Phyllocladia are also formed at the margin of old cups. The phyllocladia of old, rotten podetia can assume the function of the thallus horizontalis. New podetia emerge from them. 4. The tissue of the apothecium is not fundamentally determinant. It was observed that on the disc of an apothecium a phyllocladium had been formed by the subhymenial tissue. On this phyllocladium a pycnidium was found.
30742Masselink A.K. & Sipman H.J.M. (1985): Enkele nieuwe vondsten van Cladonia’s in Nederland [Some new records of Cladonia species in the Netherlands]. - Gorteria, 12(10): 231–241.
[in Dutch with English summary: ] Some interesting records of lichens belonging to the genus Cladonia Wigg. are reported. Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng. and C. fragilissima Østh. & P. James have recently been found for the first time in the Netherlands. C. symphycarpa (Ach.) Fr., hitherto only collected once, has been discovered on a second locality. Short descriptions and comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of these species are given, and tables of phytosociological relevé’s are provided, as well as some drawings of the plant material collected.
30741Senn-Irlet B. (1988): Macromycetes in alpine snow-bed communitiesmycocoenological investigations. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 37(2): 251–263.
For a period of 3 or 5 years, six plots in the alpine zone of Switzerland, mainly in the Bernese Oberland, have been observed for macromycetes. In snow-bed communities, 88 species could be found, 25 on siliceous ground and 63 on calcareous ground. Fungi with a wide ecological range and a large distribution area dominate in acidic snow-bed communities (Salicetum herbaceae (SAH)) and fungi with distinctly specified ecological claims dominate in calciphilous snow-bed communities (Salicetum retuso-reticulate (SAR)). In both vegetation types mycorrhizae-formers play a most important role. The differences in the flora between the two snow-bed communities are greater for the macromycetes than for the phanerogams. Both vegetation types are characterized by macromycetes. Key-words: agaricales, alpine zone, discomycetes, mycocoenology, snow-bed communities. P. 253: "Mosses play an important role in the structure of snow-beds. In SAH there are nearly exclusively acrocarpeous mosses beside some tiny hepatics, whereas in SAR pleurocarpeous mosses dominate. Moreover, the richness of lichens is striking in SAR. In relation to their cryptogam composition the two snow-bed communities differ greatly; there are only a few species in common." Several dozens species of lichens and bryophytes were recorded (Table 4) but only 3 lichens listed explicitely (Lecidea hypnorum, Bacidia sabuletorum and Rinodina mniaraea), identified by C. Scheidegger and E. Ruoss.
30740Guan C., Li X., Zhang P. & Li C. (2019): Effect of global warming on soil respiration and cumulative carbon release in biocrust-dominated areas in the Tengger Desert, northern China. - Journal of Soils and Sediments, 19: 1161–1170.
Purpose: Global warming is expected to have profound effects on terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes, consequently influencing future climate. Biocrusts are important sources of C in the C cycle of desert ecosystems, where vascular plants are restricted by limited soil moisture. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the expected increases in temperature on soil respiration in biocrustdominated areas. Materials and methods: In a field warming experiment, we evaluated the impact of increased temperature on soil respiration in biocrust-dominated (moss-crusted and lichen-crusted) areas in Shapotou, China. In addition, the impacts of precipitation, soil temperature, and moisture on soil respiration were investigated. Results: and discussion The effect of warming on soil respiration varied with soil water availability. Our results showed that soil respiration in moss-crusted and lichen-crusted areas in the warming treatment was significantly lower than that in the control. The observed inhibition of soil respiration by the increase in soil temperature was likely due to the reduction in soil moisture caused by the increased water evaporation rate under higher soil temperature. Warming also decreased cumulative C release in mosscrusted and lichen-crusted areas. Moreover, cumulative C release showed marked seasonal variations, with the highest C release occurring in summer and the lowest in winter. Over the seasonal cycle, soil respiration rates were positively correlated with precipitation, soil temperature, and volumetric soil water content. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that warming may increase the sensitivity of soil respiration to water availability in biocrust-dominated areas in desert ecosystems, suggesting that biocrust should be considered in projections of future C budget. Keywords: Biological soil crust . Precipitation . Seasonality . Soil respiration . Stimulatedwarming . Cumulative C release.
30739Bianchi E., Paoli L., Colzi I., Coppi A., Gonnelli C., Lazzaro L., Loppi S., Papini A., Vannini A. & Benesperi R. (2019): High-light stress in wet and dry thalli of the endangered Mediterranean lichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén: does size matter?. - Mycological Progress, 18: 463–470.
In the Mediterranean basin, coastal dune systems are a priority habitat for nature conservation. Seirophora villosa is strictly associated with undisturbed dune juniper formations and can be used as an indicator of the status of conservation. Light regime and water availability are generally the main ecological factors modified by habitat fragmentation that can be detrimental to the colonisation and survival of S. villosa populations in coastal dunes. This study aims to investigate how light regime and water availability affect individual specimens of S. villosa, by studying the relationship between photosynthetic activity and water content per thallus area in different sized S. villosa thalli and comparing susceptibility of hydrated and desiccated thalli to light stress. During dehydration, photosynthetic activity decreased, reaching low constant values in smaller thalli more quickly than in larger ones. During the exposure of dry thalli to high light, photoinhibition consistently occurred earlier in smaller specimens than in larger ones. Moreover, larger thalli that were kept dried recovered to pre-treatment values within 3 days, while smaller ones took 5 days to recover initial values. On the other hand, both large and small wet thalli were photoinhibited within 1 day and recovered to pre-treatment values within 4 and 6 days respectively. Our results showed that S. villosa thalli are susceptible to sudden increases in light exposure, especially in the case of small specimens, which after photoinhibition exhibited a reduced ability to recover. Habitat fragmentation therefore represents a significant threat to the species, particularly in dispersal and establishment phases. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence . Coastal dunes . Hydration . Photoinhibition . Mediterranean area.
30738Chiva S., Garrido-Benavent I., Moya P., Molins A. & Barreno E. (2019): How did terricolous fungi originate in the Mediterranean region? A case study with a gypsicolous lichenized species. - Journal of Biogeography, 46: 515–525.
Aim: The historical causes responsible for the wide distribution of terricolous, crustose lichenized fungi across the Mediterranean Basin and the Canary Islands have never been explored. Here, we used the terricolous, circum‐Mediterranean/Macaronesian species Buellia zoharyi (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) to infer the time frame, and the climatic, geological and ecological factors influencing the origin and current spatial distribution of this species. Location: Mediterranean Basin and Canary Islands. Methods: Data from two nuclear markers (nrITS and tef1) obtained from 226 specimens of 23 populations covering the entire distribution range of B. zoharyi were used to calculate genetic diversity indices and haplotype networks and to investigate population size changes and structure. Three secondary calibrations were used to estimate the timing of the divergence of B. zoharyi from its hypothesized sister species, B. elegans, and the diversification of B. zoharyi. Results: We found low nucleotide diversity and two geographically differentiated haplogroups, with a contact zone in the Iberian Peninsula. The three dating approaches established wide temporal windows for the divergence of B. zoharyi from B. elegans (Eocene‐Pliocene) and its diversification (Miocene‐Pleistocene). These intervals overlap with the origin and diversification ages found in other lichen‐forming fungi and vascular plants inhabiting the Mediterranean region. Main conclusions: In the context of lichen biogeography, our results support ecological specialization as well as geological and climatic events as drivers of the evolutionary history of B. zoharyi in the Mediterranean. In particular, the combined effects of the Messinian salinity crisis and the subsequent Zanclean Flood on the availability of gypsum soils in the Mediterranean Basin, as well as the Quaternary climatic oscillations, seem to have collectively shaped the amount and distribution of B. zoharyi population genetic diversity. Keywords: biogeography, Buellia zoharyi, ecological speciation, gypsum soils, Messinian salinity crisis, Zanclean Flood.
30737Haugan R. & Timdal E. (2019): The morphologically cryptic lichen species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana new to Norway. Graphis Scripta. - Graphis Scripta, 31(2): 5–13.
The two species Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana are reported as new to Norway from two collections each, identified by the DNA barcode marker (nrITS). A chemical analysis of selected specimens of P. saxatilis s. lat. revealed an additional 29 collections of the two species due to the presence of fatty acids. An analysis of seven morphological and chemical characters currently used for distinguishing the two species failed, however, and the two species are hence regarded as morphologically cryptic.
30736Ekman S. & Tønsberg T. (2019): Biatora alnetorum (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales), a new lichen species from western North America. - MycoKeys, 48: 55–65.
Biatora alnetorum S. Ekman & Tønsberg, a lichenised ascomycete in the family Ramalinaceae (Lecanorales, Lecanoromycetes), is described as new to science. It is distinct from other species of Biatora in the combination of mainly three-septate ascospores, a crustose thallus forming distinctly delimited soralia that develop by disintegration of convex pustules and the production of atranorin in the thallus and apothecia. The species is known from the Pacific Northwest of North America, where it inhabits the smooth bark of Alnus alnobetula subsp. sinuata and A. rubra. Biatora alnetorum is also a new host for the lichenicolous ascomycete Sclerococcum toensbergii Diederich. Keywords: Biatora flavopunctata, Biatora pallens, Lecania, BAli-Phy.
30735Holien H., Eidissen S.E. & Lorås J. (2018): Skoghistorie, økologi og lavflora i en furuskog på indre Helgeland – Danielåsen i Grane [Forest history, ecology and lichen flora in a Pinus sylvestris dominated area at inner Helgeland – Danielåsen, Grane municipality]. - Blyttia, 76: 243–254.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] The lichen flora and the historical use of a Pinus sylvestris-dominated area in Danielåsen nature reserve, in Nordland county, are presented. The study area is about 75 ha large, most of it sited outside the reserve. A wildfire burned through the area in 1831 and left behind dead wood represented with natural stumps, logs and snags, uprooted trees and standing kelotrees. In the study area altogether 83 lichen species were recorded on pine trees and wood, including 4 red listed species. Most of the lichen species are less likely to be a direct result of the heavy wildfire, but the fire clearly created a more open and sun-exposed landscape, which are preferred by several lichen species. Dendrochronological samples of 13 conifers document an age of ca 300–612 years for pine and up to ca 330 years for spruce. This indicates that the wildfire spread to most parts of the area, but did not cover all of it due to mires and moist grassland hindering its spreading.
30734Holien H., Brandrud T.E. & Hassel K. (2018): Kalkområdene i Snåsa og Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag – oaser for sjeldne karplanter, moser, lav og sopp [Areas of calcareous bedrock in Snåsa and Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag – hotspot areas with rare vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and fungi]. - Blyttia, 76: 166–188.
[in Norwegian with English abstract: ] The calcareous areas of Snåsa and Steinkjer municipalities have for a long time been well known for their rare vascular plants including several redlisted orchids such as Cypripedium calceolus, Epipogium aphyllum and Ophrys insectifera. However, the diversity of bryophytes, lichens and fungi in the same areas has until recently been much less known. This paper summarizes 10 years of floristic field work in calcareous coniferous forests in the Snåsa and Steinkjer municipalities. Of particular interest is the high number of mycorrhizal fungi recorded close to hotspot areas of orchids, including species of Cortinarius, Hygrophorus, Ramaria and Sarcodon. A number of crustose lichen specialists of calcareous rock were also recorded, many of which are rarely collected. Petractis clausa is a characteristic member of this group. The bryophyte flora is diverse with several nationally scarce species. Especially bryophytes of calcareous rock walls, in both spruce and pine forest, include many rare and red listed species. A mixture of phytogeographic elements are present in the area including both southern/southeastern, northern and western species. Several southern species are probably relict populations from the warmer period after the last glaciation. Some of the forest types are unique for the Scandinavian peninsula, like certain types of moist calcareous spruce forests on shallow soils.
30733Śliwa L. & Matura N. (2018): Cladonia strepsilis (Cladoniaceae) i inne interesujące gatunki porostów w Polskich Karpatach [Cladonia strepsilis (Cladoniaceae) and other interesting lichen species in the Polish Carpathians]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 25(2): 243–253.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] Cladonia strepsilis is confirmed as occurring in the Polish Carpathians, with a newly reported locality in the Beskid Mały Mts. New regional records are given for Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, C. ecmocyna, C. humilis, C. merochlorophaea, C. polycarpoides, C. rei, C. sulphurina and C. trassii. All species identifications were confirmed based on chemical analyses using thinlayer chromatography (TLC). Key words: Carpathians, distribution, diversity, lichenized fungi, secondary metabolites, Tatra Mts, taxonomy.
30732Szymczyk R. & Kukwa M. (2018): Materiały do bioty porostów i grzybów naporostowych Pojezierza Mrągowskiego (Polska północno-wschodnia) [Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Mrągów Lakeland (NE Poland)]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 25(1): 79–92.
[in Polish with English abstract: ] This paper presents the results of lichenological studies done in central and northern parts of the Mrągów Lakeland. The analysed biota consists of 152 taxa, including 139 lichens and 13 non-lichenized, lichenicolous or saprobic fungi. Fourteen of the noted taxa are protected by law and 48 are on the list of endangered lichens in Poland. The biota includes such valuable species as Arthonia vinosa, Chaenotheca chlorella, Chrysothrix candelaris, Diplotomma alboatrum, Fellhanera gyrophorica, Lecania erysibe and Reichlingia leopoldii. Key words: anthropogenic habitats, Ascomycota, lichenized fungi, rare species, threatened and protected species.
30731Balewska A. & Kubiak D. (2017): Nowe stanowiska Cliostomum griffithii (Ramalinaceae) w Polsce północno-wschodniej [New localities of Cliostomum griffithii (Ramalinaceae) in northeastern Poland]. - Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica, 24(2): 518–523.
[in Polish with English summary: ] Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins is a subatlantic species known in Poland mainly from the northwestern part of the country, where it grows at sites close to the Baltic Sea shore. This paper describes three new localities of the species outside the eastern limit of its continuous range (Fig. 1).
30730Liebe H., Sundsbø S. & Gauslaa Y. (2017): Huldrestry i bekkekløftskog – finnes det en optimal skogtetthet for denne laven? [Is there an optimal tree density for Usnea longissima in a forested canyon?]. - Blyttia, 75(4): 239–243.
[in Norwegian with English abstract:] Usnea longissima is a threatened hair lichen requiring long ecological continuity in forests. Assumingly it needs a combination of high light and high humidity which is rarely realized under modern forestry regimes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the longest individuals of U. longissima, one measure of lichen fitness, occurs in forest with an intermediate density of trees. By measuring relascope sums (=basal area) and the length of the longest thalli for individual trees in the humid Bergdøla canyon in Ringebu with a dry continental macroclimate, we found that an intermediate basal area was significantly associated with the longest thalli. Because long thallus lengths are associated with conditions facilitating growth, these results suggest that growth rates of U. longissima peak at a basal area of ≈26 m2 ha-1. Thereby, too open as well as too dark forest stands reduce the growth rates of this species.
30729Jørgensen P.M. (2017): Norge på lavtoppen [Norway at the lichen peak]. - Blyttia, 75(4): 233–235.
Popular paper; [in Norwegian with English abstract: ] Norway has recently (Lücking 2017) been shown in a QAD analysis to have produced more papers on lichens than any other country pr. inhabitant, and is in the column for 2000–2016 far ahead of the other countries, notably the other Scandinavian countries where lichenology has had a longer and stronger tradition. Lichenology in Norway started with Martin Vahl (1748–1804), but had a rather shaky development. It was close to extinction on several occasions, but was vigorously revived by Bernt Lynge (1884–1942). Only one of his many students remained faithful to lichenology, Eilif Dahl(1916–1993). In spite of many other tasks and interests he renewed the field and his student Hildur Krog (1922–2014) became the first Norwegian lichen professor. Her many students as well as others are now active in this field, and lichen research is now carried out in all Norwegian universities.This is clearly reflected in the figures.
30728Kirika P.M., Divakar P.K., Buaruang K., Leavitt S.D., Crespo A., Gatheri G.W., Mugambi G., Benatti M.N. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Molecular phylogenetic studies unmask overlooked diversity in the tropical lichenized fungal genus Bulbothrix s.l. (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 184(3): 387–399.
Species boundaries in lichen-forming fungi occurring in extra-tropical regions are relatively well studied in comparison with those in species distributed in tropical regions. Here, we aim to re-examine species boundaries in two pantropical, asexually reproducing species, Bulbothrix isidiza and B. tabacina. We generated a multi-locus DNA sequence data set from samples collected throughout the Tropics and these data were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Our results show that B. isidiza and B. tabacina, as currently circumscribed, do not form monophyletic groups. Rather, our study supports the presence of five, independent species-level lineages in B. isidiza s.l. and three in B. tabacina s.l. Additionally, seven other species were recovered in distinct lineages. Some of the previously overlooked lineages appear to have a restricted geography, whereas others are pantropical. Morphological, chemical and ecological features were re-evaluated for each of these lineages. A new species, B. kenyana sp. nov., is formally described from East Africa and a new combination, B. sublaevigatoides comb. nov., is proposed. Due to limited specimen sampling, the remaining undescribed species-level lineages newly circumscribed in this study are not formally recognized here. Additional keywords: Africa – integrative taxonomy – molecular systematics – new species – parmelioid lichens – taxonomic re-evaluation.
30727Nuñez-Zapata J., Alors D., Cubas P., Divakar P.K., Leavitt S.D., Lumbsch H.T. & Crespo A. (2017): Understanding disjunct distribution patterns in lichen-forming fungi: insights from Parmelina (Parmeliaceae: Ascomycota). - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 184(2): 238–253.
Disjunct intercontinental distributions have always fascinated biologists. With the increasing availability of molecular sequence data, there is a renewed interest in historical biogeography, especially in groups in which species boundaries have changed dramatically as a result, such as lichenized fungi. In the hyperdiverse family Parmeliaceae, Parmelina and Myelochroa have contrasting centres of distribution, with Myelochroa being most diverse in eastern Asia and Parmelina in Western Europe and the Mediterranean. We used multi-locus sequence data from 53 specimens to understand the impact of historical events on the current distribution patterns in these genera. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships, estimated divergence times and inferred ancestral distributions. Our analyses suggested that the ancestor of the two genera occurred in the Old World and that these genera split during the Eocene. Diversification in both genera was estimated to have occurred during the Miocene, with the ancestor of Myelochroa probably occurring in Asia, whereas the ancestor of Parmelina probably occurred in the Turanian region and Europe or only Europe. The two Parmelina spp. occurring in the New World (P. coleae, P. yalungana) are not closely related and migrated independently from the Old World. Additional keywords: ancestral areas – distribution – Eocene – lichens – long-distance dispersal – Miocene – Northern Hemisphere – parmelioid lichens – phylogeny.
30726Kraichak E., Huang J.-P., Nelsen M., Leavitt S.D. & Lumbsch H.T. (2018): A revised classification of orders and families in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) based on a temporal approach. - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 188(3): 233–249.
Taxonomic ranks above the species level are inherently arbitrary. However, there is a growing number of publications aimed at more consistent classifications with comparable ranks among taxa. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that utilizes time-calibrated chronograms to identify and define temporal bands for comparable ordinal and family ranks in Lecanoromycetes, the most diverse lineage of lichen-forming fungi. A multilocus dataset consisting of 539 taxa in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes, Lecanoromycetidae and Ostropomycetidae, was used to address the circumscription of families and orders. Based on the temporal banding approach, clades that share a common ancestor between 176 and 194 Mya and a time window of 111–135 Mya correspond to order-level and family-level, respectively. Most currently accepted orders and families were supported in their current circumscription, but some new taxa are described. Here we propose a revised, temporally based classification for the two subclasses. Specifically, three new orders are proposed: Sporastatiales, Schaereriales and Thelenellales. Arctomiales, Hymeneliales and Trapeliales are synonymized with Baeomycetales. Varicellariaceae are proposed as a new family, and Diploschistaceae and Thelotremataceae are resurrected. Squamarinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are synonymized with Cladoniaceae, Carbonicolaceae are synonymized with Lecanoraceae, Letrouitiaceae are synonymized with Brigantiaeaceae, Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae are synonymized with Peltigeraceae, Thrombiaceae are synonymized with Protothelenellaceae, and Miltideaceae are synonymized with Agyriaceae. This study represents an important step towards more consistent, comparable deeper-level taxonomic rankings in the most diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi. Additional keywords: fungi – lichenized fungi – phylogeny – taxonomy – taxonomic ranks – temporal banding.
30725Nordin A., Thor G. & Hermansson J. (2018): Lavar med svenska namn – fjärde upplagan [Lichens with Swedish names – fourth edition]. - Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 112: 345–379.
Swedish names of 1638 lichens within 363 genera are presented. 336 of the names are new to this edition of the list, which is to be regarded as the official list of Swedish names of lichens.
30724Tumur A. & Richardson D.H.S. (2019): The Lichens of Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia. - Northeastern Naturalist, 26(1): 63–80.
The peninsula on which the city of Halifax is located ends in a park that has remained mostly wooded since 1749, despite being periodically disturbed and partially cleared by military activities and storms. This first detailed study of the lichens of Point Pleasant Park is based on collections from almost 300 survey sites, which showed a remarkably diverse flora of 164 species, varying from pollution-tolerant lichens such as Lecanora conizaeoides at the northern end of the park, to members of the Lobarion community at the southern end. In 2003, Hurricane Juan felled a large number of the larger, older trees, which explains the current high proportion of crustose species established on the smaller, younger, trees. The baseline data reported in this study will be of value to follow the succession of lichens on trees as the bark surfaces change from smooth to ridged, with age, over the next few decades. The rich lichen flora of the park also reflects the fact that there are rock outcrops and vertical rock faces. These substrates support a lichen flora of 43 species, and the terricolous habitats are colonized by a further 23 species, including 18 species of Cladonia.
30723Borges P.A.V., Gabriel R., Arroz A., Costa A., Cunha R.T., Silva L., Mendonça E., Martins A.M.F., Reis F. & Cardoso P. (2010): The Azorean Biodiversity Portal: An Internet database for regional biodiversity outreach. - Systematics and Biodiversity, 8(4): 423–434.
There is a growing interest in academia to provide biodiversity data to both the scientific community and the public. We present an internet database of the terrestrial lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, molluscs, arthropods, vertebrates and coastal invertebrates of the Azores archipelago (Portugal, North Atlantic): the Azorean Biodiversity Portal (ABP, http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/). This is a unique resource for fundamental research in systematics, biodiversity, education and conservation management. The ABP was based on a regional species database (ATLANTIS), comprised of grid-based spatial incidence information for c. 5000 species. Most of the data rely on a comprehensive literature survey (dating back to the 19th century) as well as unpublished records from recent field surveys in the Azores. The ABP disseminates the ATLANTIS database to the public, allowing universal, unrestricted access to much of its data. Complementarily, the ABP includes additional information of interest to the general public (e.g. literature on Macaronesian biodiversity) together with images from collections and/or live specimens for many species. In this contribution we explain the implementation of a regional biodiversity database, its architecture, achievements and outcomes, strengths and limitations; we further include a number of suggestions in order to implement similar initiatives. Keywords: Azores, biodiversity, database, science communication, species distribution, webpage.
30722Tehler A., Irestedt M., Wedin M. & Ertz D. (2010): The Old World Roccella species outside Europe and Macaronesia: taxonomy, evolution and phylogeny. - Systematics and Biodiversity, 8(2): 223–246.
With this paper the genus Roccella is complete and fully revised. The genus contains 24 species of which eight species from the Old World in Asia and Africa are here treated in detail, Roccella applanata, R. babingtonii, R. balfourii, R. boryi, R. minuta (newly described here), R. montagnei, R. phycopsioides (newly described here) and R. sinensis. Roccella tinctoria with a predominantly Macaronesian distribution has some outpost localities in south western Africa is also included in this treatise. A full species phylogeny is presented based on data from four molecular markers, RPB2, nuLSU, ITS 1 and 2 and an anonymous locus. The African–Asian species together with three Macaronesian species (R. allorgei, R. fuciformis, R. maderensis) form a poorly supported monophyletic clade. The sister group to that clade is the significantly supported group containing the American and European–Macaronesian species. Roccella montagnei is the most widespread of all Roccella species ranging from Australia, around the Indian Ocean and further on along the west coast of Africa up north to the Cape Verde Islands. It is a genetically variable species, but morphologically, anatomically and chemically distinct and it is here maintained as one species. The distribution of roccellic acid among the samples within the monophyletic species group Roccella applanata, R. babingtonii, R. boryi, R. montagnei was surprising: sorediate specimens contain roccellic acid whereas fertile specimens, except for four samples, lack roccellic acid. Key words: Arthoniales, lichenized fungi, phylogenetic species, Roccellaceae, Roccella minuta , Roccella phycopsioides , Roccella phylogeny, roccellic acid, species pairs.
30721Crespo A., Ferencova Z., Pérez-Ortega S., Elix J.A. & Divakar P.K. (2010): Austroparmelina, a new Australasian lineage in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Systematics and Biodiversity, 8(2): 209–221.
Parmelioid lichens form the largest monophyletic group within the Parmeliaceae, a family distributed worldwide. The genus Parmelina was described by Hale (1976a) accommodating species from both hemispheres. We have employed parsimony, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of a combined data set of nu ITS, LSU and mt SSU rDNA sequences to (1) test the monophyly of Parmelina and (2) to elucidate the generic status and phylogenetic position of the Australasian species. Twenty-one new sequences were generated in this study. Our results provide evidence that Parmelina is polyphyletic and the species fall into two major well-supported groups (Groups I and II). The Australasian species of Parmelina and two species of Canoparmelia (C. pruinata and C. macrospora) form Group I, which is nested within the parmotremoid genera of Parmeliaceae, Parmelina species from the northern hemisphere including those from western North America and the Mediterranean basin form a monophyletic group (Group II), which is sister to the East Asian temperate genus Myelochroa. Morphological and chemical features were reevaluated considering this observed phylogeny. Some morphological features like lobe morphology, several traits in the excipulum and geography are useful in characterizing the monophyletic lineage of the Australasian Parmelina/Canoparmelina species. This lineage is described as the new genus Austroparmelina. Thirteen new combinations in the new genus are proposed. Key words: Ascomycota, Austroparmelina , cryptic variation, excipulum as a taxonomic character, ITS, molecular phylogeny, mt SSU, multiple loci, new genus, nu LSU, Parmeliaceae.
30720Molina M.C., Divakar P.K., Goward T., Millanes A.M., Lumbsch H.T. & Crespo A. (2017): Neogene diversification in the temperate lichen-forming fungal genus Parmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). - Systematics and Biodiversity, 15(2): 166–181.
The lichen-forming genus Parmelia Acharius occurs worldwide but its centre of distribution is in the northern hemisphere and it is widespread in boreal-temperate Eurasia and North America. Recent molecular work on Parmelia has identified phylogenetic relationships within two major groups of the genus: P. saxatilis s. lat. and P. sulcata s. lat. However, little is known about the diversification and historical biogeography of these groups. Here we have used a dataset of two genetic markers and 64 samples to estimate phylogenetic relationships within Parmelia. The dated phylogeny provides evidence for major diversification during the Neogene and Pleistocene. These diversification events are probably correlated with climatic changes during these periods. Evidence of gene flow within species between populations from North America and Europe has been found in three species: P. sulcata Taylor, P. saxatilis (L.) Acharius and P. barrenoae Divakar, M.C. Molina & A. Crespo. Cryptic species recently segregated on the basis of molecular differences (P. encryptata A. Crespo, Divakar & M.C. Molina vs. P. sulcata and P. saxatilis vs. P. mayi Divakar, A. Crespo & M.C. Molina) do not share a common ancestor. Moreover, the P. saxatilis complex is remarkably diverse. Two morphotypes of P. saxatilis s. lat. were shown to represent independent monophyletic lineages. Consequently, two species (P. sulymae Goward, Divakar, & M.C. Molina & A. Crespo and P. imbricaria Goward, Divakar, M.C. Molina & A. Crespo) are newly described here. Key words: biogeographic distribution, diversification, evolution model, Neogene, Parmelia, phenotypic plasticity, phylogenetic relationship.
30719Nelsen M.P., Lücking R., Cáceres M.E.S., Aptroot A. & Lumbsch H.T. (2017): Assessing the phylogenetic placement and redundancy of Aspidotheliaceae (Ascomycota), an orphaned family of lichen-forming fungi. - Systematics and Biodiversity, 15(1): 67–73.
The lichen-forming fungal genus Aspidothelium has either been considered to represent a separate genus and family or a synonym of Thelenella in Thelenellaceae. At times, a close relationship has been suggested with genera now placed in Celotheliaceae, Monoblastiaceae, Porinaceae, Protothelenellaceae, Pyrenulaceae, Strigulaceae, Thelenellaceae, and Verrucariaceae, families scattered across three ascomycete classes. Consequently, its classification has remained unstable, and the genus is currently listed as incertae sedis within Ascomycota. Here we utilize DNA sequence data to clarify its position. Our sampling suggests that Aspidothelium is embedded within the family Thelenellaceae (Lecanoromycetes: Ostropomycetidae), supporting previous proposals to synonymize Aspidotheliaceae with Thelenellaceae. This clade is allied with the order Ostropales and further work is needed to elucidate whether it should be considered part of Ostropales or a distinct order. Aspidothelium is monophyletic, and its continued recognition requires acceptance of the genus Chromatochlamys. The abandonment of historic classification schemes resulted in the proliferation of many orphaned clades of perithecial, lichen-forming fungi – the present study has clarified the higher-level relationships of one of these enigmatic families, and facilitated its placement in a modern phylogenetic framework. Key words: crustose, foliicolous, Ostropomycetidae, perithecia, systematics, Thelenellaceae, tropics.
30718Ellis C.J. (2019): Interactions of climate and solar irradiance can reverse the bioclimatic response of poikilohydric species: An experimental test for Flavoparmelia caperata. - Bryologist, 122(1): 98–110.
There is an increasing use of bioclimatic models to quantify the climate change response of bryophytes and lichens. The physiological performance of these poikilohydric organisms depends on ambient climatic conditions interacting with light availability. However, bioclimatic models have tended to follow a common practice of selecting temperature/precipitation variables without reference to light as a key functional constraint. In this study a growth chamber simulation was used to reconstruct patterns of temperature-moisture-light for the baseline and 2080s climates, affecting the performance of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata for a high-latitude (568N) temperate rainforest study site in Britain. The results demonstrate the importance of increased 2080s warmth and moisture under low winter light (possibly favoring respiration), and increased dormancy during drier and warmer summers (possibly reducing photosynthesis), resulting in negative growth (mass loss) for future climates. This is in direct contrast to the outcome of bioclimatic models applied to the same study site, which project increased environmental suitability based on a warmer and wetter climate (not considering irradiance). The study cautions that predictors for bioclimatic models should be chosen to reflect verified constraints in ecological performance (such as for growth), and especially for poikilohydric organisms this would include the interaction between ambient climate and light availability. Keywords: Climate change simulation, epiphyte, lichen, non-analogue climates, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD).
30717Nave J. (1867): A handy-book to the collection and preparation of freshwater and marine algae, diatoms, desmids, fungi, lichens, mosses and other of the lower Cryptogamia with instructions for the formation of an herbarium. - London : Robert Hardwicke, [i-xii +] 203 p.
Translation (by W.W. Spicer) of the German original "Anleitung zum Einsammeln, Präpariren und Untersuchen der Pflanzen, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Kryptogamen". Lichens at p. 132-138.
30716van der Pluijm A. & Meijer H. (2019): Een recente vondst van Usnea glabrata (glanzend baardmos) [A recent find of Usnea glabrata in the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 114: 12–18.
[in Dutch with English abstract : ] In the Netherlands Usnea glabrata is a very rare species, with some records from the 19th century and the last one in 1981. In October 2017 a new locality was discovered near Poortugaal in the province of Zuid-Holland. A cluster of thalli of approximately 60 by 10 cm was found on a hardwood railing of a small bridge in a wet forest. Individual thalli only measured 10 to 15 mm, but were well developed, and with TLC the presence of protocetraric acid could be demonstrated. Sometimes atypical, isidiomorph-like structures, probably young fibrils, were encountered on terminal branches. The epixylic vegetation with U. glabrata on the vertical, south-exposed surfaces of the bridge can be characterised as a Lecanoretum symmictae Klement 1953 developing into a Hypotrachynetum revolutae Almborn ex Klement 1955. Interesting accompanying species were e.g. Usnea subfloridana and Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum. Usnea glabrata is very rare in NW-Europe, so it probably re-established itself via long distance dispersal at the new site in the Netherlands. Several minute, very young thalli were found dispersed on other planks and posts of the bridge, so perhaps a local population can develop.
30715Sparrius L., van der Kolk H.-J., Aptroot A., van der Pluijm A. & van Dort K. (2016): Nieuwe vindplaatsen van zeldzame korstmossen en licheenparasieten in de periode 2012 t/m medio 2016 [New records of rare lichens and lichenicolous fungi between 2012 and medio 2016]. - Buxbaumiella, 107: 15–37.
[In Dutch with English abstract : ] 715 new localities of 181 rare species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported for the Netherlands. The lichens Amygdalaria pelobotryon, Collema bachmanianum, Rimularia gibbosa and lichenicolous fungi Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae (on Xanthoria parietina) and Trichonectria anisospora (on Hypogymnia physodes) are reported as new to the Netherlands. Occurences included are records between 2012 and medio 2016 that resulted in a new 5 x 5 km grid cell on the distribution maps. Compared to all species on the Dutch checklist, new records of rare species often appear to be species that are more sensitive to nitrogen and/or with a southern distribution and higher temperature indication value.
30714van der Pluijm A. & Boesveld A. (2016): Baardmossen (Usnea spp.) in de Biesbosch, (vooral) vroeger en nu [New and (mostly) old records of species of Usnea in the Biesbosch]. - Buxbaumiella, 107: 1–14.
[In Dutch with English abstract: ] A chronological overview is presented of the Usnea-species that have been found in the National Park the Biesbosch. The Biesbosch is a freshwater tidal area in the basin of the rivers Meuse and Rhine. Due to the closure of the Haringvlietdam in 1970 the tidal influence in the parts called ‘Dordtse’ and ‘Brabantse’ Biesbosch was greatly reduced. In the ‘Sliedrechtse’ Biesbosch a direct connection with the sea has remained and here still an amplitude of ca. 80 cm exists. Since 1955 and especially after 1970 on a large scale cultured willow coppices were abandoned here and developed into more natural willow forests. These woods have been surveyed for bryophytes and lichens by the authors since 1983 and this yielded six species of Usnea. With two additional species found by A.M. Brand (*) the total comes out at eight: U. fulvoreagens, U. subfloridana, U. glabrata (*), U. cornuta, U. ceratina, U. hirta (*), U. esperantiana and U. flavocardia. In 1969 U. fulvoreagens was the first species that appeared. It was found several times until 1990 by A.M. Brand, mainly in the forest complex called ‘Grienden van de Dood’. Several Usnea’s were only found incidentally, and sometimes even on a single willow tree: U. glabrata (1981), U. cornuta (1984), U. ceratina (1984 2× and 1987) and U. hirta (1990). In the beginning of the eighties of the last century U. subfloridana was rather common in young and old willow forests and formed vital thalli on living and dead branches. Soon after, however, it rapidly decreased and practically vanished after 1991. Since then for many years Usnea’s were absent in the Biesbosch. In 1999 (leg. and det. A. Aptroot) and 2012 U. esperantiana was found in wet, low lying willow thickets. Also in this habitat in 2016 a local population of Usnea flavocardia was discovered. The increased air pollution with ammonia may have caused the disappearance of Usnea species in the late eighties. We think that, additionally, lower levels of air humidity may have been harmful. This is indicated by the warmer climate and the considerable decrease of the average number of days with fog and mist in the last decades. This may also explain why relative newcomers were species like U. esperantiana and U. flavocardia, since they both have their main distribution in SW-Europe.
30713Toetenel H. & van Trigt T. (2016): De Zuiderzeedijk bij Nijkerk, een verdwijnend korstmosparadijsje [The Zuiderzee dyke near Nijkerk, a disappearing lichen paradise]. - Buxbaumiella, 106: 49–53.
[In Dutch with English abstract : ] The Zuiderzee dyke near Nijkerk, a disappearing lichen paradise Old dykes, built centuries ago to protect polders against floods from the former ‘Zuiderzee’ (nowadays IJsselmeer), were sometimes made of materials like basalt and granite boulders. This substate, seldom used in the Netherlands, is host to rare lichen species. The old dyke near Nijkerk is renowned fot its very rare lichens, but their existence is threatened by dyke maintenance and vegetation growth. Periodical removal of the vegetation in combination with the creation of a lichen reserve may preserve their existence in the future.
30712van der Pluijm A. & van Dort K. (2016): Nieuwe vondsten in Nederland van de witkring, Sporodophoron (voorheen Schismatomma) cretaceum, in de Biesbosch (N-Br.) en op Havezate Mensinge (Dr.) [Two recent finds of Sporodophoron cretaceum in The Netherlands, in the Biesbosch (prov. N-Br.) and at Havezate Mensinge (prov. Dr.)]. - Buxbaumiella, 106: 15–24.
[In Dutch with English abstract : ] In April 2016 the very rare Sporodophoron (previous name: Schismatomma) cretaceum was discovered in The Netherlands at two new stations. Until recently only six records were known from The Netherlands, four of them from the nineteenth and one from the twentieth century. In the Biesbosch, a National Park in the freshwater tidal environment near the city of Dordrecht, Sporodophoron cretaceum was found in two willow forests called ‘Benedenste Jannezand’ and ‘St.-Jansplaat’. Both are former willow coppices, abandoned respectively 45 and 60 years ago. Developments are now taking place towards more natural, structurally rich Salicion albae vegetations. Sporodophoron cretaceum was found 0.5 to 3 m high on the dry, east facing bark of old vertical or slanting willow stems with a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 cm. In the Benedenste Jannezand a fairly large and apparently expanding population was discovered. One stem base was nearly completely covered with the lichen and on six stems in the near vicinity a total of about 35 small colonies could be traced. In the woods of the Biesbosch fallen willow trees rejuvenate on a large scale by forming vertical branches. On such young branches, not far from the Sporodophoron cretaceum locality, several other interesting epiphytes were discovered that are very rare in The Netherlands, e.g. Habrodon perpusillus, Phaeographis smithii, Arthonia cinnabaria and Bacidia laurocerasi. From a floristic point of view the recent influx of epiphytic forest lichens shows that the unmanaged willow stands in the Biesbosch are rapidly developing into a more mature forest ecosystem. In the same period two smaller populations of Sporodophoron cretaceum were found at Havezate Mensinge, a historical estate in the province of Drenthe in the northern part of the country. At Mensinge S. cretaceum covers the dry sheltered part of an old Quercus on the edge of a canal. It is accompanied by Dendrographa decolorans (previous name: Schismatomma decolorans), Diploicia canescens and Haematomma ochroleucum, a set of species diagnostic of the Ramalinetum duriaei. This community is usually associated with ancient woodland. In The Netherlands it is rare and restricted to old, slow growing roadside trees. A provisional distribution map of S. cretaceum in Europe is presented based on literature. From this map the species shows a rather distinct Atlantic distribution.
30711van der Kolk H.-J. (2016): Pronectria oligospora: rode stipjes op gestippeld schildmos [Pronectria oligospora: red dots on Punctelia subrudecta]. - Buxbaumiella, 106: 11–14.
[In Dutch with English abstract :] Pronectria oligospora: red dots on Punctelia subrudecta. Pronectria oligospora was recorded at 30 sites in The Netherlands during the past two years. Consequently, it can be considered a very common lichenicolous fungus. Pronectria oligospora is distinguished from other lichenicolous fungi for its perithecia, which are immersed and lack setae. Furthermore, at least in The Netherlands Pronectria oligospora seems to be largely confined to the host Punctelia subrudecta.
30710van der Pluijm A. & Klunder N. (2016): Een recente vondst in Nederland van gestippeld lichtvlekje, Phlyctis agelaea, op es in de Biesbosch [A recent find of Phlyctis agelaea in the Netherlands, on an ash tree in the Biesbosch]. - Buxbaumiella, 106: 1–5.
[In Dutch with English abstract : ] In February 2016 Phlyctis agelaea was found in the Biesbosch National Park, a freshwater tidal area in the western part of the Netherlands. In the nineteenth century in our country this species had been found at thirteen locations, but it was thought to be extinct. After 1904 it was only reported once, in 2009 on a cut down tree. A single thallus of P. agelaea of approximately four centimetres diameter was found on the base of an ash tree in a mixed plantation, accompanied by bryophytes such as Leskea polycarpa, Pylaisia polyantha, Cryphaea heteromalla, Radula complanata, Metzgeria furcata and Frullania dilatata. Phlyctis agelaea may be another predominantly southern epiphyte that benefits from decades of milder winters in the Netherlands.
30709Spier L. (2016): Lecanora persimilis (Th.Fr.) Nyl., een nieuw korstvormig licheen voor Nederland? [Lecanora persimilis (Th.Fr.) Nyl., a new crustose lichen to the Netherlands?]. - Buxbaumiella, 105: 33–35.
In Dutch with English abstract
30708van Dort K. & Aptroot A. (2016): Biatoridium monasteriense Lahm ex Körb. nieuw voor Nederland [Biatoridium monasteriense Lahm ex Körb. new to the Netherlands]. - Buxbaumiella, 105: 17–21.
In Dutch with English abstract
30707Sparrius L. (2016): Voorstel voor een experiment met de herintroductie van wollig korrelloof en stuifzandkorrelloof [Proposal for an experimental reintroduction of Stereocaulon condensatum and Stereocaulon saxatile]. - Buxbaumiella, 105: 13–17.
In Dutch with English abstract
30706Aptroot A. & van Dort K. (2016): Drie boerenkoolmossen op één houten stuw [Three corticolous cetrarioid lichens found on a wooden sluice]. - Buxbaumiella, 105: 1–3.
In Dutch with English abstract