30516Sørlie R. (2001): Ectomycorrhiza on Salix herbacea L. in the glacier foreland of Midtdalsbreen, Finse, Norway. - ms., Cand. Scient. Thesis, University of Oslo, Division of botany and plant physiology, 106 p.
Cetraria delisei, C. islandica, Cladonia arbuscula, C. bellidiflora, C. cervicornis ssp. pulvinata, C. ecmocyna, C. macrophylloides, C. maxima, C. stricta, Peltigera aphthosa, P. malacea, Solorina crocea, Stereocaulon spp. One should suppose that the composition of ectomycorrhiza fungi would change as vegetation develops following a glacier retreat. The objectives of this study were to compare ectomycorrhiza (EM) along a chronosequence in a recently deglaciated land, from bare mineral soil to established alpine snow-beds. A chronosequence developed after the retreat of'the glacier Midtdalsbreen since 1750 provided an opportunity to study the EM formation on roots of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea in different successional stages. The EM quantity and the morphotype composition were examined in snow-bed communities to get a below-ground view of the fungal spatial pattern. The approach consisted of analysing the distribution of different EM morphotypes in different successional stages and to relating distribution patterns to the variations in environmental conditions. The below-ground density of EM fine-roots and the differentiation of morphotypes were studied on roots from the upper soil layer in 50 sample plots of 1 x 1 m. Fine-scale variation was studied by sampling two soil cores (100 cm3) from each plot. The approach included environmental variables measured in each plot. Coarser scaled topographic variables were derived from the surrounding terrain using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) including a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A total of approximately 40 000 EM root tips were encountered and categorised into 27 morphotypes using gross morphological traits. Ectomycorrhiza formation was encountered on all individualsofSalix herbacea alongthechronosequence.Thecommunitystructurechangedfrequently from pioneer stages to older established sites. The EM colonisation and number of sheathed root tips increased rapidly from sites of 30 years of age to 50 years of age. The maximum abundance was encountered in 200-250 years old terrain. The number of sheathed root tips seemed to be lower in snow-beds beyond the glacier foreland. 96 environmental variables were analysed for covariation using principal component analysis (PCA). Indirect ordination (DCA) showed that the main gradient in the EM data corresponded to a primary succession gradient. Ecologically important variables associated with this main gradient were pH, organic soil depth, soil moisture, lichen- cover and cover of Salix herbacea. A second gradient seemed to be associated with the terrain aspect and the potential radiation. Fine-scale variation in physiognomic structures of the host (biomass, number of shoots, and leaf size) did not seem to be dependent on the ectomycorrhiza variation (morphotypes or abundance). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on morphotypes showed that pH and several topographic variables significantly contributed to the variation explained. A fairly high explanatory contribution from some topographic variables highlights the restrictions of using a stratified sampling design and sampling units of different scales. Causes of spatial variation are discussed. The restriction of only investigating gross EM morphological structures is also stressed.
30515Matthews J.A. & Whittaker R.J. (1987): Vegetation Succession on the Storbreen Glacier Foreland, Jotunheimen, Norway: A Review. - Arctic and Alpine Research, 19(4): 385-395.
Investigations of spatial patterns, environmental gradients, directly measured changes, and plant population structures in front of the Storbreen glacier, southern Norway, have extended the traditional chronosequence approach to the study of primary vegetation succession. A geoecological approach has been developed which does not assume that the vegetation patterns represent a simple linear time sequence. The whole suite of studies is reviewed with particular reference to implications for vegetation succession theory and hence applications in the field of vegetation restoration. Distribution patterns of plant species demonstrate that pioneer colonizers are replaced at various rates and by different species depending on local environmental factors, particularly altitude, aspect, and microtopography. Analyses of community types and vegetation gradients indicate a two-stage high-altitude succession which diverges from a three-stage low-altitude succession. Measurement of environmental variables has distinguished two factor complexes which are important in explaining the vegetation landscape. One of these (the snow melt/exposure/moisture factor complex) is relatively independent of terrain age. Direct measurements of vegetation change over 12 yr show strong progressive succession on terrain ages of 20 to 50 yr and retrogression associated with disturbance on older terrain. Finally, sampling of the size structures of species populations has identified varying patterns of behavior; some commonality in population patterns between species suggests common roles within the succession and common patterns in response to available resources.
30514Matthews J.A. (1977): A lichenometric test of the 1750 end-moraine hypothesis: Storbreen gletscervorfeld, southern Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 31(3): 129-136.
The hypothesis that the the outermost end moraine in front of a southern Norwegian glacier dates from 1750 is tested by a lichenometric technique on the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen. A method of randomised extrapolation involving 300 lichenometry curves is used, whereby predicted dates are obtained from lichenometry curves constructed from well-founded fixed points based on surfaces dating from between 1900 and 1951. The mean predicted date based on the use of five largest lichens per surface is 1757 with 95 % confidence limits at 1743 and 1770. Mean predicted dates based on the use of single largest or ten largest lichens are 1785 and 1774, respectively, dates which differ significantly from 1750. Statistical and ecological reasons suggest that a systematic bias is resulting in underestimates of true age. It is concluded that there is no reason to reject the 1750 end moraine hypothesis and that deglaciation from the Ml moraine ridge at Storbreen occurred early in the second half of the eighteenth century.
30513Matthews J.A. (1974): Families of lichenometric dating curves from the Storbreen glet- schervorfeld, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 28: 215-235.
Lichenometric dating, based on Rhizocarpon geographicum, is applied to the estab­ lishment of an areal chronology for deglaciation of the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, central southern Norway. A simple approach permitting many lichenometry curves to be constructed in the same area is adopted, each curve differing in the number of sites per surface or the number of lichens per site employed in its construction. Nine lichenometry curves of exponential form are constructed from largest lichens on four past glacier margins of known age, and the age of four margins of unknown age predicted. Median predicted ages are 1811, 1833, 1854 and 1871 and all pre­ dictions fall within an overall range of 17 years, 10 years, 10 years and 7 years respectively. The reproducibility of the predicted ages, together with independent supporting evidence, suggests that families of lichenometry curves allow considerable confidence to be placed in the lichenometric dates and are a promising addition to lichenometric dating technique in general
30512Matthews J.A. (1975): Experiments on the reproducibility and reliability of lichenometric dates, Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen, Norway. - Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 29: 97–109.
Experiments are made on the reproducibility of lichenometric dates and a method outlined for obtaining reliable lichenometric dates and a measure of their accuracy. The paper is based on field measurements of Rhizocarpon geographicum growing on 10 former ice margins, Storbreen gletschervorfeld, Jotunheimen, southern Norway. The whole population of largest lichens was measured on each margin and 144 lichenometry curves constructed from randomly sampled sub-sets of the data. The effect on predicted dates of varying the number of fixed points and varying the number of largest lichens per margin is analysed. Reproducibility of dates is measured by the dispersion of individual predictions about the mean prediction. Each mean prediction is the best estimate available of the true age of each margin. It is argued that ‘preferred predictions’ are, in this case, the mean prediction based on five largest lichens per margin and an overall mean of predictions based on one, five and ten largest lichens per margin. Use of families of lichenometry curves is reassessed by comparing mean predicted dates from 40 non-independent lichenometry curves with the ‘preferred predictions’. The ‘preferred predictions’ for the four margins of unknown age are: 1867–71 (M5), 1852–53 (M4), 1824–27 (M3), 1810 (M2). Previously published predicted dates, based on families of lichenometry curves and necessary for the establishment of an areal chronology for the Storbreen gletschervorfeld, are substantiated. Previously published results of lichenometric dating, based on single lichenometry curves, are criticised and widespread use of the principle of reproducibility is advocated.
30511Wijayawardene N.N., Hyde K.D., McKenzie E.H.C. & Wang Y. (2018): Notes for genera update – Ascomycota: 6822-6917. - Mycosphere, 9(6): 1222–1234.
Acquiring updated information of fungi is one of the challenges faced by mycologists. This study is a continuation of Wijayawardene et al. (2017, 2018) and provides notes (generic name, classification, number of species, typification details, life mode, distribution, references) for each genus of Ascomycota described mainly during the period January to June 2018. Key words – Classification – Coelomycetes – Hyphomycetes – New Genera – Sexual Genera.
30510Rosentreter R. & Root H.T. (2019): Biological soil crust diversity and composition in southwest Idaho, U.S.A.. - Bryologist, 122(1): 10–22.
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) were sampled by habitat types within and adjacent to the Orchard Combat Training Center (OCTC) in southwest Idaho, U.S.A. Plots consisting of a 34.7 m radius circle, approximately equal to one acre or 0.38 hectares were sampled. We focused on five native vascular plantdominated current habitat types within the OCTC, including: 1) Wyoming sagebrush, 2) saltbush, 3) rabbitbrush, 4) winterfat, and 5) Sandberg bluegrass. We describe how BSC cover and species richness varied with habitat types in the study area. We recorded the relative abundance of BSCs and vascular plant species and collected voucher specimens for each BSC. The biodiversity of each BSC in these arid habitat types was much greater than many ecologists have assumed. We found a total of 68 species of BSC across all 17 plots. BSC cover differed significantly across the different habitat types. BSC cover was significantly higher in sagebrush and saltbush as compared with Poa, rabbitbrush and winterfat habitat types. Overall, there was substantially more BSC richness (17–47 species) than vascular plant richness (4– 13 species), and BSC richness was positively related to vascular plant richness (R2¼0.18, p¼0.041). On average, each additional plant species was associated with 1.36 additional BSC species. BSC communities also varied across the habitat types with Buellia punctata as a significant indicator species for sagebrush, Toninia sedifolia for saltbush, and Cladonia pocillum for winterfat. Several BSC species were associated with 2 or 3 habitat types; for example, Cladonia fimbriata, Diploschistes muscorum, Leptogium lichenoides, Massalongia carnosa, Riccia sorocarpa and Trapeliopsis steppica were most common in the sagebrush, Poa, and rabbitbrush habitats. In contrast, Caloplaca tominii, Endocarpon loscosii, Placidium squamulosum and Psora tuckermanii were most common in winterfat and saltbush habitats. Keywords: Biodiversity, biocrusts, Great Basin, lichens, bryophytes, military training area.
30509Гельтман Д.В., Гимельбрант Д.Е., Конечная Г.Ю., Коткова В.М., Лукницкая А.Ф., Потемкин А.Д., Сафронова Т.В., Смирнова С.В., Степанчикова И.С., Андреев М.П., Белякова Р.Н., Болдина О.Н., Гагарина Л.В., Глазкова Е.А., Гогорев Р.М., Доронина А.Ю., Дорошина Г.Я., Ефимов П.Г., Жакова Л.В., Катаева О.А., Ковальчук Н.А., Кузнецова Е.С., Михайлова Т.А., Морозова О.В., Новожилов Ю.К., Попов Е.С., Сорокина И.А. & Спирин В.А. [Geltman D.V., Himelbrant D.E., Konechnaya G.Yu., Kotkova V.M., Luknitskaya A.F., Potemkin A.D., Safronova T.V., Smirnova S.V., Stepanchikova I.S., Andreev M.P., Belyakova R.N., Boldina O.N., Gagarina L.V., Glazkova E.A., Gogorev R.M., Doronina A.Yu., Doroshina G.Ya., Efimov P.G., Zhakova L.V., Katayeva O.A., Kovalchuk N.A., Kuznetsova E.S., Mikhaylova T.A., Morozova O.V., Novozhilov Yu.K., Popov E.S., Sorokina I.A. & Spirin V.A.] (2018): Виды сосудистых растений, мохообразных, водорослей, лишайников, грибов и миксомицетов, нуждающиеся в региональной охране на территории Ленинградской области [Vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi and slime molds needed in regional conservation measures in the Leningrad Region]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 103(6): 764–811.
[In Russian with English summary:] The list of species included in the Red Data Book of the Leningrad Region and, thus, legally protected, was officially adopted in 2015 and contains 529 species. However, in fact this list is out of date because it almost completely repeats the list of species, included into the Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region (plants and fungi) published in 2000. A group of experts during 2015—2017 revised and actualized the list of species needed in conservation measures in the Leningrad Region and are to be included into the regional Red Data Book (officially protected). Complex analysis of distribution, habitat preferences and biological features of the species led us to the conclusion that 129 species included into the Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region (plants and fungi) (2000) in fact do not merit special conservation measures; at the same time 189 species are proposed for conservation. As a result, we suggest that 590 species are needed in conservation measures including 188 vascular plants, 87 bryophytes, 80 algae, 101 lichens, 134 fungi and slime molds. For every species the IUCN Red List category and criteria are indicated, taking into account their application at the regional level. Key words: plant conservation, Leningrad Region, Red Data Book, the IUCN Red List category and criteria, vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, fungi, slime molds.
30508Исмаилов А.Б. [Ismailov A.B.] (2018): Новые для Дагестана виды макролишайников [The species of macrolichens new to Dagestan]. - Ботанический журнал [Botanicheskii Zhurnal], 103(6): 755–759.
[In Russian with English summary:] The data on the records of 10 species and 3 genera (Imshaugia, Lobarina and Tuckermannopsis) of macrolichens new to Republic of Dagestan is presented. The information on their distribution in the Caucasus with data of localities is given. Key words: macrolichens, high mountains, new records, Dagestan, East Caucasus.
30507Исмаилов А.Б. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Ismailov A.B. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): Материалы к лихенофлоре Самурского хребта (высокогорный Дагестан) [Materials to the lichen flora of Samurskiy Ridge (High mountainous Dagestan)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 397–406.
[In Russian with English abstract:] The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of high mountainous landscapes of Samurskiy Ridge were studied in altitudinal range 2400–3770 m a. s. l. for the first time and 112 species are recorded. Among them 33 species, 10 genera (Arthrorhaphis, Baeomyces, Calvitimela, Epilichen, Lambiella, Psorinia, Rufoplaca, Sagedia, Sporastatia, Tremolecia) and 4 families (Anamylopsoraceae, Arthrorhaphidaceae, Baeomycetaceae, Hymeneliaceae) are new for Dagestan, six species (Buellia uberior, Carbonea atronivea, Lecanora atrosulphurea, Lecidea fuliginosa, L. swartzioidea, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans) are reported for the first time for the Greater Caucasus and two species (Acarospora subpruinata and Rhizocarpon postumum) — for the North Caucasus. Most of the new findings were collected from 3500–3770 m a. s. l. Keywords: lichenicolous fungi, lichens, new records, high mountainous Dagestan, East Caucasus, Russia, Samurskiy Ridge.
30506Макрый Т.В. [Makryi T.V.] (2018): Sedelnikovaea baicalensis (Lecanoraceae) — новый для Европы род и вид лишайника [Sedelnikovaea baicalensis (Lecanoraceae) — new lichen genus and species for Europe]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 407–416.
[in Russian with English abstract:] Sedelnikovaea baicalensis, the Siberian-Central Asian lichen species, is recorded for the first time for Europe. Based on all the known localities, including those first-time reported from Baikal Siberia, the peculiarities of the ecology and distribution of this species are discussed, the map of its distribution is provided. It is concluded that the species was erroneously considered earlier as a Central Asian endemic. The center of the present range of this lichen is the steppes of Southern Siberia and Mongolia. Assumptions are made that S. baicalensis is relatively young (Paleogene-Neogene) species otherwise it would have a vast range extending beyond Asia, and also that the Yakut locations of this species indicate that in the Pleistocene its range was wider and covered a significant part of the Northeastern Siberia but later underwent regression. Based on the fact that in the mountains of Central Asia the species is found only in the upper mountain belts, it is proposed to characterize it as «cryo-arid xerophyte» in contrast to «arid xerophytes». A conclusion is made that the presence of extensive disjunctions of S. baicalensis range between the Southern Pre-Urals and the Altai-Sayan Mountains or the Mountains of Central Asia is unlikely; the lichen is most likely to occur in the Urals and most of Kazakhstan. Keywords: ecology, range, Central Asia, Orenburg Region, Russia, Siberia, Yakutia.
30505Урбанавичене И.Н. & Урбанавичюс Г.П. [Urbanavichene I.N. & Urbanavichus G.P.] (2018): К лихенофлоре Ставропольского края (Центральный Кавказ, Россия) [Contributions to the lichen flora of the Stavropol Territory (Central Caucasus, Russia)]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 417–434.
[in Russian with English abstract:] New data on lichen flora of the Stavropol Territory (Central Caucasus) are provided. Study of four protected natural areas of the Stavropol Territory — «Lermontova Skala» and «Mashuk Mountain» natural monuments, and «Beshtaugorskiy» and «Malyy Essentuchok» sanctuaries resulted in finding of 279 species: 258 species of lichens, 18 species of lichenicolous fungi and 3 species of non-lichenized saprobic fungi. Among them Bacidia notarisiana, Buelliella minimula, Pertusaria pluripuncta, Protoparmelia memnonia, Psorotichia vermiculata, Rebentischia massalongii are new for Russia, 23 species are new for Caucasus, 25 species for the North Caucasus, 164 species for the Central Caucasus and 225 species are new for the Stavropol Territory. Keywords: lichen flora, new records, protected areas, Caucasus, Russia, Stavropol Territory.
30504Чабаненко С.И. [Tchabanenko S.I.] (2018): Обзор видов рода Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) России [A review of the genus Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in Russia]. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 435–444.
[in Russian with English abstract:] Based on our research and literature data, an overview of the species of the genus Nipponoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) that occur on the territory of Russia (N. isidioclada, N. laevior, N. perplicata, N. pseudolaevior) is presented. An identification key, refined diagnoses of the species, description of their ecology and distribution are provided. Keywords: Nipponoparmelia, key to species, lichens, taxonomic review, Far East, Russia, Sakhalin Region.
30503Himelbrant D.E., Efimova A.A., Khanov Z.M., Leostrin A.V., Makryi T.V. & Stepanchikova I.S. (2018): New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi. 1. - Новости систематики низших растений [Novosti sistematiki nizshikh rastenii] / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(2): 445–453.
[In English but part by T. Makryi at p. 448-450 entitled 'Новые находки лишайников для Оренбургской области — New lichen records for the Orenburg Region' and acknowledgments are written in Russian]. First records of 8 lichens, 2 lichenicolous fungi and 1 saprobic fungus for the Kostroma Region, 3 arctic-alpine lichens for the Orenburg Region, 1 lichen for the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic as well as data on their localities, habitats and distribution are provided. Keywords: Absconditella lignicola, Alyxoria varia, Anisomeridium polypori, Buellia griseovirens, Fuscidea pusilla, Lichenostigma maureri, Melanohalea septentrionalis, Opegrapha niveoatra, Peridiothelia fuliguncta, Pertusaria coccodes, Phacopsis huuskonenii, Rhizocarpon disporum, Rinodina roscida, Sarcogyne clavus, Thelenella muscorum, Caucasus, European Russia, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Kostroma Region, Orenburg Region, Russia.
30502Joseph S., Sinha G.P. & Ramachandran V.S. (2013): A new record of Syncesia (lichenized Ascomycota) from India with additional taxonomic characters. - Taiwania, 58(4): 300–304.
A lichen species Syncesia farinacea (Fée) Tehler collected from the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu is reported as new to India. A detailed description and figures along with additional information about its pycnidia, oil globules in young ascomata and rare isidia like structures not mentioned in earlier reports for this species are also provided. Key words: Arthoniales, Roccellaceae, Tamil Nadu, taxonomy.
30501Singh P., Singh K.P. & Bhatt A.B. (2013): New species and new records of thelotremoid Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from Arunachal Pradesh (India). - Taiwania, 58(4): 246–250.
Rhabdodiscus indicus, a new species is described from Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is characterized by the isidiate thallus, white prurinose, reticulate columellate apothecia, hyaline small 4-locular ascospores and presence of cinchonarum unknown substance. In addition, two species viz. Ocellularia neopertusariiformis Hale and Ocellularia subgranulosa (Homchantara & Coppins) Lumbsch & Papong dealt briefly are reported for the first time from India. Key words: Eastern Himalaya, India, isidia, new records, new species, taxonomy.
30500Joseph S. & Sinha G.P. (2015): The lichenicolous species of Melaspilea (Melaspileaceae) in India. - Taiwania, 60(1): 18–22.
The lichenicolous species of genus Melaspilea has been studied. As a result, a new species Melaspilea amarkantakensis has been described and M. insitiva has been lectotypified. The new species grows on the thallus and ascomata of Pertusaria species in ‘sal’ forests of central India and is characterized by relatively small, blackish ascomata, I– and K/I+ pale blue hymenium, 4-spored, shorter, 25.4–33.2 × 14.3–20.2 μm asci and 1-septate, (12.1–)13.3–16.0(–17.5) × (5.0–)6.1–7.6(–8.9) μm ascospores lacking perispore. Key words: Arthoniomycetes, Ascomycota, lectotypification, Madhya Pradesh, taxonomy.
30499Ingle K.K., Trivedi S., Nayaka S. & Upreti D.K. (2017): The lichen genera Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium (Trypetheliales: Trypetheliaceae) in India. - Taiwania, 62(1): 50–54.
Taxonomic account of Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium are presented from India. Polymeridium cinereonigricans (Vain.) R.C. Harris, P. pleurothecium R.C. Harris and P. submuriforme Aptroot are reported as new records for India. An artificial key to all the species known so far from India along with notes on their distribution and ecology is also presented. Key words: Dictyomeridium, India, Lichen, Polymeridium, Taxonomy, Trypetheliaceae.
30498Gupta P., Joseph S. & Sinha G.P. (2019): Enterographa assamica, a new species from North-East India. - Taiwania, 64(1): 1–3.
A new species Enterographa assamica, in the family Roccellaceae sensu lato is described from Assam, India. It is characterized by whitish grey thallus, rounded to elongate ascomata with yellowish-white thalline margin and presence of lichexanthone and confluentic acid in the thallus. A key to all the known species of Enterographa in India is also provided. Key words: Arthoniales; Assam; India; Enterographa assamica; Lichenized Ascomycota; Roccellaceae s. l.; Taxonomy.
30497Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A. & Ohmura Y. (2016): Candelariella placodizans (Candelariaceae) reported new to mainland China and Taiwan based on morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic analyses. - Taiwania, 61(2): 159–164.
Candelariella placodizans is newly reported from China. It was collected on exposed rocks with mosses on the alpine areas of Taiwan and Yunnan Province, China at elevation between 3200-4400 m. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA sequences were also performed to confirm the monophyly of the Chinese populations with respect to already existing sequences of the species, and then further to examine their relationships to other members of the genus. An identification key to all 14 known taxa of Candelariella in China is provided. Keyword: China, Distribution, Flora, Identification key, ITS rDNA, Phylogeny, Taiwan, Yunnan.
30496Galanina I.A., Ezhkin A.K. & Yakovchenko L.S. (2018): Rinodina megistospora (Physciaceae) in the Russian Far East. - Новости систематики низших растений / Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium, 52(1): 133–139.
The paper presents new data on distribution of the lichen Rinodina megistospora in the Russian Far East and its revealed range in eastern Asia. R. megistospora is recorded for the first time for the Sakhalin Region (Sakhalin and Iturup islands). It has been found on the territory of Russia in eight localities in the boreal and nemoral zones of Northeast Asia. The species grows in old-growth intact coniferous and oak forests on bark of Betula sp., Kalopanax septemlobus, Picea sp., Quercus crispula and Sorbus sp. Current data suggest that R. megistospora is one of the species belonging to the Eastern Asiatic — Western North American group of species, characterized by disjunctive range. The paper presents the anatomical and morphological description of Rinodina megistospora, based on the examined specimens. Keywords: Asia, biogeography, disjunction, lichens.
30495Gagarina L.V., Poryadina L.N., Chesnokov S.V. & Konoreva L.A. (2017): The lichen genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). - Botanica Pacifica, 6(1): 31–36.
The occurrence of lichens belonging to the genus Usnea was studied in Yakutia.Eight species have been revealed: U. barbata (L.) F.H. Wigg., U. cavernosa Tuck., U. dasypoga (Ach.) Nyl., U. glabrescens (Nyl. ex Vain.) Vain., U. hirta (L.) W.H. Wigg., U. lapponica Vain., U. longissima Ach. and U. subfloridana Stirt. Distribution maps, an identification key and notes with diagnostic features and distribution data for each species are provided. Keywords: lichens, Usnea, identification key, Yakutia.
30494Ezhkin A.K. (2018): Megalospora porphyritis (Tuck.) R.C. Harris, a new record for Russia. - Botanica Pacifica, 7(2): 143–145.
A new finding of Megalospora porphyritis, previously known only from North America and Japan was registered on Sakhalin and Kuriles, Far East of Russia. The taxon is considered as a good example of an American/Asian disjunction most likely related to geological events in the Tertiary. Illustrations of lichen’s morphological features and a map of finding points are provided. Key words: rare species, disjunction, relict, broad-leaved forest.
30493Tchabanenko S.I., Konoreva L.A. & Chesnokov S.V. (2018): Lichens collected in the Sakhalin Botanical Garden: new records to Russia, the Russian Far East and Sakhalin Island. - Botanica Pacifica, 7(1): 71–79.
During the lichenogical survey conducted in the Sakhalin Branch of Botanical Garden-Institute FEB RAS, a number of interesting findings were made. Among the identified species, Thelotrema bicinctulum is new for Russia; Agonimia flabelliformis, Peridiothelia fuliguncta, and Strigula jamesii were recorded for the Russian Far East for the first time; Arthonia helvola, A. spadicea and Ionaspis epulotica are new to the South of the Russian Far East and five species to Sakhalin Island. Key words: lichens, Far East, Sakhalin, new records, Asia.
30492Keller C. (2017): Flechten von Gavdos. In: Urmi E., Bryoflorula Gaudensis – Ein Beitrag zur Kryptogamenflora der Ägäis. - Herzogia, 30(2): 336–338.
Greece
30491Das K., Rossi W., Leonardi M., Ghosh A., Bera I., Hembrom M.E., Bajpai R., Joseph S., Nayaka S., Upreti D.K., Wang X.-H., Hofstetter V. & Buyck B. (2018): Fungal Biodiversity Profiles 61 - 70. - Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 39(4): 381–418.
In this new series of Fungal Biodiversity Profiles, the authors describe nine species new to science, four Ascomycota, as well as one Cantharellus and four Russula (Basidiomycota). Among Ascomycota, the lichen forming Cryptothecia odishensis sp. nov. (Arthoniales) is reported from tropical forests in India, while first Indian reports are given for C. atropunctata and C. exilis, two species originally described from Australia, and for the tropical American Myriostigma filicinum. In Laboulbeniales, descriptions are provided for Hesperomyces auriculatus sp. nov., Laboulbenia montana sp. nov. and Zodiomyces vermiformis sp. nov. Among Basidiomycota, Cantharellus subfloridulus sp. nov. (Cantharellales) is described from the African rain forest, and detailed data are provided on the holotype location of C. addaiensis. In Russulales, Russula gnathangensis sp. nov., R. indohimalayana sp. nov., R. pseudokrombholzii sp. nov. and R. subalpinogrisea sp. nov. are newly described from Abies densa forests in Indian Himalaya. Still among Asian Russulales, Multifurca roxburghii is epitypified with a recent collection from its original habitat and the recently described M. albovelutina is clearly a later synonym. In addition, the recently described M. mellea is most likely either a later synonym of M. pseudofurcata or of M. orientalis. Lichenized Ascomycota / Arthoniales / Cantharellales / epitypification / ITS / Laboulbeniales / Multifurca / phylogeny / Russula / Russulales / taxonomy /
30490Morse C.A. & Lendemer J.C. (2019): A new Biatoridium from eastern North America, with comments on the disposition of species of Biatorella sensu Magnusson. - Bryologist, 122(1): 1–9.
Biatoridium lasiothecium is described as new to science from southeastern North America. The species differs from B. delitescens and B. monasteriense in the shaggy appearance of the ascomata, due to the elongation of individual paraphyses. A taxonomic key to morphologically similar, polysporous species, as well as other North American lichenized and non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in Biatorella, is provided. A new combination is made for Strangospora cyphalea (” B. cyphalea). Keywords: Great Plains, Atlantic Coastal Plain, lichenized fungi, taxonomy, Albemarlea, Maronea, Myrionora, Piccolia, Ramonia, Sarcosagium, Sarea, Sporastatia, Steinia.
30489Ohmura Y., Takeshita S. & Kawachi M. (2019): Photobiont diversity within populations of a vegetatively reproducing lichen, Parmotrema tinctorum, can be generated by photobiont switching. - Symbiosis, 77: 59–72.
Photobiont diversity within populations of a vegetatively reproducing lichen can be generated by photobiont switching between the original lichen photobiont and the compatible algal partners on its surrounding substrate. The hypothesis was tested using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with a partial rbcL sequence amplified from thalli of Parmotrema tinctorum and from the substrate immediately adjacent to each thallus. On the surface of tombstones where P. tinctorum was growing, only various haplotypes of Trebouxia corticola (s. lat.) that is characterized by having distinct starch sheaths surrounding the pyrenoid were detected. DGGE could detect one to five bands of T. corticola (s. lat.) haplotypes on each substrate, and one (or rarely two) of them was often identical with the photobiont haplotype of P. tinctorum growing on the same tombstone. Through PCR screening directed at a fungal rDNA fragment, many substrate samples were found to be free of microscopic contamination from P. tinctorum. Individual algal haplotypes from the substrate were identified by sequencing of the DGGE rbcL bands and compared to the corresponding sequences of the P. tinctorum photobionts. The presence of compatible algae on the lichen substrate and the genetic identity between some of the substrate algae and those in the lichen suggest the possibility of photobiont switching in vegetatively reproducing lichens like P. tinctorum. The following observations also support the phenomenon of photobiont switching: 1) high genetic diversity of photobiont in small populations; 2)multiple photobionts in a single thallus; 3) incomplete correspondence in cophylogenetic analyses between mycobiont and photobiont; and 4) clear selectivity for photobiont in diverse lichens. Keywords: Lichenized fungi . Microalgae . rbcL . Trebouxia corticola . Selectivity . Vegetative reproduction.
30488Ranlund Å., Hylander K., Johansson V., Jonsson F., Nordin U. & Gustafsson L. (2018): Epiphytic lichen responses to environmental change due to clear-cutting differ among tree taxa. - Journal of Vegetation Science, 29: 1065–1074.
Question: Many species‐rich communities are associated with a foundation species. While we often have detailed information about the foundation species, we know less about its associated species. We explore such a situation, comparing the responses of lichen species associated with different tree taxa, which differ in successional strategy, to the environmental change that takes place when the surrounding trees are clear‐cut. Location: Boreal forests in Sweden. Methods: We illustrated general differences in lichen species composition among four tree taxa and three stand categories using ordination of species occurrences. To analyse responses to clear‐cutting we modelled the occurrence probability individually for 144 epiphytic lichen species from the lower 2 m of 2,400 tree trunks of four tree taxa in 130 stands, and compared trees in closed‐canopy forests with those retained in logged stands, using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results: The composition of lichens on aspen trees deviated clearly from that on the other tree species. Also lichen responses to logging differed among main host tree taxa, where lichen species associated with birches, European aspen, and Scots pine increased in probability of occurrence on trees in logged areas compared to intact forest, while lichen species associated with Norway spruce decreased. We found that time lags for changes in occupancy existed primarily in the increase, but not in the decline, of the groups of lichens associated with different tree taxa. Conclusions: Lichens associated with different tree taxa vary in their response to the environmental change brought about by logging, but in a way that differs from the differences in species composition among host trees. Our results highlight the importance of considering the taxa of trees in forest management for the conservation of their associated lichen species. The extent to which the ecology of foundation species influences their associated species merits further inquiry, since such knowledge may facilitate predictions of responses of associated species also in other species‐rich communities. Keywords: Bayesian hierarchical models, disturbance, environmental change, environmental history, foundation species, host tree species, lichen, response distribution, tree retention.
30487Kremer B.P. (2018): Der Kölner Dom als unerwartet artenreicher Lebensraum. Ein Felsbiotop inmitten der Großstadt. - Biologie in unserer Zeit, 48(6): 387–393.
[in German with English summary:] The Cologne Cathedral, famous UNESCO World Heritage Site, is in many regards a building of superlatives. At the time of its (preliminary) completion in 1880 it represented the tallest building in the world. The southern tower houses the heaviest free-swinging bell (24 t). The façade is almost as large as a football field. However, this cathedral does not only fascinate by its archi- tectural features and its numerous art objects, but it also proves as a remarkable complex of biotopes. All five king- doms of organisms are represented. This article deals with the diverse major taxa which meanwhile have successfully established themselves on the cathedral.
30486Díaz-Álvarez E.A. & de la Barrera E. (2018): Characterization of nitrogen deposition in a megalopolis by means of atmospheric biomonitors. - Scientific Reports, 8:13569 [10 p.].
An increase of nitrogen deposition resulting from human activities is not only a major threat for global biodiversity, but also for human health, especially in highly populated regions. It is thus important and in some instances legally mandated to monitor reactive nitrogen species in the atmosphere. The utilization of widely distributed biological species suitable for biomonitoring may be a good alternative. We assessed the suitability of an ensemble of atmospheric biomonitors of nitrogen deposition by means of an extensive sampling of a lichen, two mosses, and a bromeliad throughout the Valley of Mexico, whose population reaches 30 million, and subsequent measurements of nitrogen metabolism parameters. In all cases we found significant responses of nitrogen content, C:N ratio and the δ15N to season and site. In turn, the δ15N for the mosses responded linearly to the wet deposition. Also, the nitrogen content (R2 = 0.7), the C:N ratio (R2 = 0.6), and δ15N (R2 = 0.5) for the bromeliad had a linear response to NOx. However, the bromeliad was not found in sites with NOx concentrations exceeding 80 ppb, apparently of as a consequence of excess nitrogen. These biomonitors can be utilized in tandem to determine the status of atmospheric nitrogenous pollution in regions without monitoring networks for avoiding health problems for ecosystems and humans.
30485Cernava T., Aschenbrenner I.A., Soh J., Sensen C.W., Grube M. & Berg G. (2019): Plasticity of a holobiont: desiccation induces fasting-like metabolism within the lichen microbiota. - The ISME Journal, 13: 547–556.
The role of host-associated microbiota in enduring dehydration and drought is largely unknown. We have used lichens to study this increasingly important problem because they are the organisms that are optimally adapted to reoccurring hydration/dehydration cycles, and they host a defined and persistent bacterial community. The analysis of metatranscriptomic datasets from bacterial communities of the lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.), sampled under representative hydration stages, revealed significant structural shifts and functional specialization to host conditions. The hydrated samples showed upregulated transcription of transport systems, tRNA modification and various porins (Omp2b by Rhizobiales), whereas the desiccated samples showed different functions related to stress adaption prominently. Carbohydrate metabolism was activated under both conditions. Under dry conditions, upregulation of a specialized ketone metabolism indicated a switch to lipid-based nutrition. Several bacterial lineages were involved in a functional transition that was reminiscent of a ‘fasting metaorganism’. Similar functional adaptions were assigned to taxonomically unrelated groups, indicating hydration-related specialization of the microbiota. We were able to show that host-associated bacterial communities are well adapted to dehydration by stress protection and changes of the metabolism. Moreover, our results indicate an intense interplay in holobiont functioning under drought stress.
30484Yang Y., Bae W.K., Lee J.-Y., Choi Y.J., Lee K.H., Park M.-S., Yu Y.H., Park S.-Y., Zhou R., Taş İ., Gamage C., Paik M.-J., Lee J.H., Chung I.J., Kim K.K., Hur J.-S., Kim S.K., Ha H.-H. & Kim H. (2018): Potassium usnate, a water-soluble usnic acid salt, shows enhanced bioavailability and inhibits invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer. - Scientific Reports, 8:16234 [11 p.].
Usnic acid (UA), a lichen secondary substance, has considerable anticancer activity in vitro, whereas its effect in vivo is limited. Here, potassium usnate (KU) was prepared by the salinization of UA to enhance its water solubility. KU showed increased bioavailability compared with UA in the tumor, liver, and plasma of a CT26 syngeneic mouse tumor xenograft model after oral administration, as determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. KU exhibited potent anticancer effects on colorectal cancer cells and inhibited liver metastasis in an orthotopic murine colorectal cancer model. KU treatment downregulated the epithelial-mesenchymal markers Twist, Snail, and Slug and the metastasis-related genes CAPN1, CDC42, CFL1, IGF1, WASF1, and WASL in cells and tumor tissues. The present results suggest the potential application of the water-soluble form of UA, KU, in anticancer therapy.
30483Schiller K. (1894): Kryptogamen des Bayrischen Waldes. - Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft Isis in Dresden, 1894: 1071–1073.
30482Ricek E.W. (1988): Die Peitschenmoos-Fichtenwälder des Mühlviertels. - In: Das Mühlviertel. Natur-Kullur-Leben. Beiträge zur Landesausstellung des Amtes der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Amt der Öberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Linz, pp. 97-104.
Flechten treten daher in der typischen Assoziation zurück. Oft sind sie auf die Stamm- und Strunksockel bzw. auf die Stamm- basen beschränkt: Cladonia digitata, C. squamosa, C. deformis. Die bodenbesiedelnden Arten (Cetraria islandica = Isländische Moosflechte, Cladonia chlorophaea, eine Becherflechte) wachsen oft an Stellen mit gestörter Vegetation.
30481Zimmermann A. (1982): Erica-reiche Silikat-Föhrenwälder in den östlichen Zentralalpen (III): überregionaler Vergleich. - Phyton, 22(2): 289–316.
Silicate-pine-forests, rich in Erica carnea, in the eastern Central Alps (III): comparison beyond the region.
30480Horák J., Materna J., Halda J.P., Mladenović S., Bogusch P. & Pech P. (2019): Biodiversity in remnants of natural mountain forests under conservation-oriented management. - Scientific Reports, 9:89 [10 p.].
The structure of forests is an important stabilizing factor regarding ongoing global climate and land use change. Biodiverse mountain forests with natural structure are one of the ecosystems most endangered by these problems. We focused on the mountain forest islands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and their role in the natural distribution of organisms. The study area was situated in the oldest Czech national park, Krkonoše (385 km2), which is the highest mountain ridge in the country. We studied multi-taxa (lichens, beetles and hymenopterans) responses to three hierarchical spatial levels of the environment: the topography was described by the elevation gradient; the patch structure was described by canopy openness, dead wood amounts, and Norway spruce (Picea abies) cover; and the tree level was described by species of the sampled tree and its diameter. Lichens preferred higher elevations, while insect groups responded conversely. Furthermore, insect groups were mainly influenced by the inner patch structure of beech islands. Lichens may be jeopardized due to the predicted future increase in temperatures, since they would need to shift toward higher altitudes. Insects may be mainly threatened in the future by land use changes (i.e., forest management) – as indicated by an interconnection of canopy openness and the amount of dead wood.
30479Rüggeberg H. (1911): Die Lichenen des Gebietes mit ihren Stand- und Fundorten. - Jahresbericht der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, 60–61: 15–66.
30478Lämmermayr L. (1918): Die grüne Vegetation steirischer Höhlen. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark, 54: 53–88.
30477Lämmermayr L. (1912): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 87: 325–364.
30476Lämmermayr L. (1914): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 90: 125–153.
30475Lämmermayr L. (1916): Die grüne Pflanzenwelt der Höhlen. I. Teil. Materialien zur Systematik, Morphologie und Physiologie der grünen Höhlenvegetation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Lichtgenusses. - Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 92: 107–148.
30474Lämmermayr L. (1927): Materialien zur Systematik und Ökologie der Serpentinflora II. Das Problem der »Serpentinpflanzen«. – Eine kritische ökologische Studie. - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 136: 25–69.
ultramafic rocks; several lichens listed (det. A.Zahlbruckner)
30473Pax F. (1949): Das Naturschutzgebiet auf dem Glatzer Schneeberg. - Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen, 32: 266–291.
Czech Republic; Poland; Králický Sněžník
30472Hertel H. (1982): Die Exsiccatenwerke des Flechtenherbares der Botanischen Staatssammlung. - Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München, 18: 297–339.
The catalogue of lichen exsiccates kept in Munich herbarium
30471Walentowski H. (1991): Die Pflanzengesellschaften der Rodungsinsel Bischofsreut im Hinteren Bayerischen Wald (800 bis 1050 m ü NN). - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 62: 67–96.
Germany; Bavaria; syntaxonomy; several terricolous lichens (e.g. Pycnothelia papillaria) mentioned from relevés
30470Heinrich G. (2003): Zur radioaktiven Belastung von Pilzen. - Fritschiana (Graz), 42: 14–24.
Lichens, mosses, higher plants: Following the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the radiocesium ( 137Cs ) activity in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea rose to over 50 000 Bq kg-1 d. w. from an initial value of approximately 400 Bq. The biological half-life of 137Cs in lichens and mosses was two to three years. The biological half-life of 90Sr was shorter than that of 137Cs, between 1.2 and 1.6 years. The biological half-life is not a constant value, it is increasing with time. The 137Cs concentrations in higher plants from forests (altitude approximately 1000 m) and pastures in the Styrian Koralpe were found to be still high today, 16 years after the Chernobyl accident. This is not the case for higher plants around Graz.
30469Riedl H. & Schiman-Czeika H. (1964): Diagnosen und Neukombinationen chilenischer Flechten. - Sydowia, 17: 82–92.
30468Riedl H. & Riedl-Dorn C. (1986): Ergebnisse einer Sammel- und Studienreise nach Mauritius im Sommer 1981. - Linzer biologische Beiträge, 18(2): 381–387.
30467Riedl H. (1968): Drei neue Lecidea-Arten aus Chile. - Sydowia, 20: 342–347.
30466Riedl H. (1976): Beobachtungen an Ramalina arabum (Ach.) Meyen et Flot. und Ramalinopsis mannii (Tuck.) Follm. et Hun. - Sydowia, 28: 134–142.
Ramalina arabum is the only fertile member of sect. Ecorticatae STEIN., characterized by the absence of a cortical layer of transverse, anastomosing hyphae. Though this character also occurs in other groups, e. g. in R.fraxinea, a separation seems justified, as the vegetative thallus is terete and most of the ascogonia are situated on the border between vegetative thallus and apothecium, while they are confined to the medullary excipulum in other species of Ramalina examined by the present author. Apothecia of Ramalinopsis mannii are more similar to typical Ramalina than those of R. arabum. It does not seem justified to regard R. arabum as a primitive species for morphological reasons. Similarities in the structure of tubercles on the vegetative thallus, beginning ramifications, pseudocyphellae and the soralia of Ramalina thrausta are stressed and some more anatomical details given. The pycnidia of Ramalinopsis mannii are described obviously for the first time.
30465Riedl H. (1970): Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo II.. - Sydowia, 23: 230–241.
The fruiting body of the fungi concerned consists of a dark outer layer formed either by blackened host tissue with a few mostly torulous hyphae from the vegetative mycelium, or by dark hyphae arising from the medulla of C o r n e r (1929) to form what is called a trichocutis by K. L o h w a g (1940), of the prosenchymous or pseudoparenchymous medullary layer or Medulla of Corner, sometimes also a hypothecium and of the paraphyses or paraphysoids together with the asci in the centre. What looks like a parenchymous central tissue is formed by paraphysoids with short and thick, often nearly globular cells, while in other cases the paraphysoids (or true paraphyses?) are filiform. The fruiting bodies of Lejophloea punctiformis (Pers.) S. Gray, L. saxicola (Mass.) H. R i e d l , comb, n., L. fallax (Nyl.) H. Riedl, comb. n., Arthopyrenia cerasi (Schrad.) Mass. and Acrocordia alba (Schrad.) Bouly de Lesd. are described as examples. Arthopyrenia has two well defined sections. The genus Acrocordia Mass, is newly defined with the help of anatomical characteristics. Mycoporum elachistoterum Nyl. is a typical Arthopyrenia without an ostiolum the covering layer of the wall breaking up at maturity. Its right name is Arthopyrenia elachistotera (Nyl.) H. R i e d l , comb. n. It is described including anatomical features and vegetative pecularities, and some older opinions referring to its taxonomical position are discussed.
30464Riedl H. (1977): Arthonia aquatica n. spec. und die Beziehung zwischen Arthoniaceae und Micareaceae (Lichenes). - Sydowia, 29: 139–145.
Arthonia aquatica H. RIEDL, sp. n., most closely related to A. tenellula NYL, is characterized by apothecia anatomically scarcely distinct from the vegetative thallus. Algae are rare in the vegetative part and do not form clusters, as is typical for Jficarea-species such as M. prasina, which are similar in several other respects, but they do not belong to Trentepohlia or any of the algae known as phycobiont of Allarthonia until now. The apothecia uniformly consist of irregular, slender hyphae without any trace of separate layers. These hyphae are in no way different from the paraphysoids, among which the few asci are irregularly scattered, but never reach the surface of the apothecium. A. aquatica growing in brooklets on wood is considered to be the extreme end of a series of reductive evolutionary steps starting from morphological types like Scoliciospora holomelaena still possessing tramal tissues, medulla in CORNERS (1929) sense, ascogenous hyphae and a typical hymenial layer, and from Micarea prasina-like forms having a medullary layer and short ascogenous hyphae, but no tramal tissues as an intermediate. Allarthonia, separated by some authors only because of its different algae, must not be considered as a genus of its own in my opinion.
30463Riedl H. (1960): Über eine neue Flechtengattung aus der Verwandtschaft von Arthopyrenia. - Sydowia, 14: 334–336.
Sporoschizon petrakianum gen. et spec. nov
30462Riedl H. (1978): Vorstudien zu einer Revision der Gattung Arthopyrenia Mass. sensu amplo III. - Zur Nomenklatur und Systematik von Arthopyrenia punctiformis auct.. - Sydowia, 29: 115–138.
Arthopyrenia analepta MASSAL., A. punctiformis (PERS.) MASSAL., A. salicis MASSAL. and some of their varieties are lectotypified and their lectotypes described in detail. The lectotypification of A. analepta revealed, that this name must not be abandoned as recently had been supposed by several authors. The main distinguishing character used is the presence or absence of paraphysoids at maturity of the spores. All the taxa united under the illegitimate name A. persoonii MASSAL. seen so far by the present author have two-celled spores contrary to MASSALONGO'S (1855) description except A. persoonii var. pancina MASSAL. f. acericola MASSAL. and f. tiliaecola MASSAL., which are based on heterogenous material and therefore illegitimate. A. analepta var. mespyli MASSAL. is closest to A. solids in the absence of paraphysoids, A. persoonii var. mali MASSAL. and var. punctiformis f. castaneae MASSAL. are regarded as identic and varieties of A. punctiformis. A. persoonii var. alni MASSAL. also seems to be closely related to A. punctiformis, but cannot be related to any of the species described here with certainty. A. epidermidis MASSAL. has to be abandoned as a nomen ccnfusum. The spores of A. padi RABENH. are unknown to the present author hitherto, but it seems to be a separate species judging from the thick paraphysoids. The taxonomic importance of several characters is discussed.
30461Riedl H. (1977): Was ist Lindauopsis A. Zahlbruckner?. - Sydowia, 28: 166–170.
Lindauopsis A. ZAHLBR. is not a parasite on lichens like Caloplaca callopisma as ZAHLBRUCKNER (1906) maintained, but structures of a hymenial layer degenerated through the competition with an overgrown thallus of a different lichen-species. Paraphyses tend to form sporelike ends, while asci are much narrowed and produce only 1 or 2 spores, becoming paraphysis-like in the parts not containing spores. There are also intermediates between asci and paraphyses. The type specimen of Lindauopsis itself revealed these facts upon closer examination.
30460Riedl H. (1962): Die Arten der Gattung Mycoporellum Müll. Arg. sensu A. Zahlbruckner. Catal., nebst Bemerkungen zum System dothidealer Flechten. - Sydowia, 15: 257–287.
30459Riedl H. (1977): Eine neue Polyblastia-Art aus der Gletscherregion der Hohen Tauern, Kärnten, Österreich. - Sydowia, 29: 245–251.
Polyblastia subglacialis sp. nov.
30458Gärtner G., Dablander A. & Kofler W. (2011): Zur Taxonomie von Solorina bispora Nyl. ssp. bispora (Ascolichenes) nach Sporenmerkmalen. - Berichte des naturwissenschaftlichen-medizinischen Verein Innsbruck, 97: 27–33.
Taxonomy of Solorina bispora Nyl. ssp. bispora (Ascolichenes) based on spore wall ornamentation. Morphology and structure of spores of S. bispora Nyl. were investigated with light- and scanning electrone microscope to elucidate the taxonomy of its infraspecific taxa. A key for determination of all European taxa of the genus Solorina is also proposed. Keywords: lichens, Solorina bispora ssp. bispora, spores, wall ornamentation, scanning electron microscopy, taxonomy, key.
30457Riedl H. (1962): Die Arten der Gattung Mycoporellum Müll. Arg. sensu Zahlbruckner, Catal., nebst Bemerkungen zum System dothidealer Flechten. II. - Sydowia, 16: 215–234.
Among else notes on Rhaphidicyrtis trichosporella (as Leptorhaphis trichosporella (Nyl.) H.Riedl comb. nov.).
30456Benedetter-Herramhof A. (2016): Flechten – Farbe, Gift & Medizin. - Kataloge des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums, N.S., 179: 1–84.
Catalogue to the exhibion of lichens undertaken between 3.11.2016 and 22.10.2017 in Biological centre of the Upper Austrian Museum (Biologiezentrum des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums) in Linz , curated by Franz Berger, Othmar Breuss, Roman Türk, Martin Pfosser and Alexandra Aberham.
30455Mielke U. (1971): Epixyle Flechten in der Stadt Magdeburg. - Hercynia, 8(2): 172–177.
30454Hanedar A., Güneş E., Kaykioğlu G., Çelik S.Ö. & Cabi E. (2019): Presence and distributions of POPS in soil, atmospheric deposition, and bioindicator samples in an industrial-agricultural area in Turkey. - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191:42 [15 p.].
In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected in the soil, lichen pine needle, and total deposition samples in the Meriç-Ergene Basin, which is one of the most important regions in terms of industrial and agricultural activities in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in 192 samples selected to represent four seasons over a 1-year period across four different regions: an intensive industrial area, an industrial + residential area, an agricultural area, and a background area. Total PAH concentrations are found in the range of 69.6–887.6 ng/g, 74.6–1277.7 ng/g, 113.4–588.9 ng/g, and 0.00–937.8 ng/m2-day; total PCB concentrations are 9.98–62.9 ng/g, 6.8–68.1 ng/g, 11.3–32.7 ng/g, and 0.00–144.4 ng/m2-day; total OCPs concentrations are 5.9–83.2 ng/g, 7.3–85.6 ng/g, 9.9–97.1 ng/g, and 0.00–137.6 ng/m2-day respectively for soil, lichen, pine needles, and bulk samples. The data were evaluated according to pollutant groups and spatial and temporal changes. The highest PAH and PCB values were detected in lichen samples from industrial areas. The highest OCP values were detected for total deposition and soil samples and in the agricultural area. The results showed that two- to three-ring PAHs, hepta-PCBs, and cyclodienes were the most widespread pollutant groups. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the accumulation and indication properties of the matrices in the study for 0.05 significance level. The pollutant group in which matrices are most similar is PAHs. Total deposition samples showed the most different pattern in terms of indications, especially for PCBs. For OCP results, the concentration values obtained in soil samples were different from all other matrices. It was determined that the indication properties of the matrices identified as pollutant indicators differ markedly from the pollutant type, and this difference is at the lowest level for PAH pollutants. Keywords: POPs; PAHs; PCB; OCP; Meriç-Ergene; Basin; Bioindicator.
30453Ravera S., Cogoni A., Vizzini A., Bonini I., Cheli F., Fačkovcová Z., Gheza G., Guttová A., Mair P., Mayrhofer H., Miserere L., Pandeli G., Paoli L., Prosser F., Puntillo D., Puntillo M., Selvaggi A., Spitale D. & Tratter W. (2018): Notulae to the Italian flora of algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens: 6 . - Italian Botanist, 6: 97–109.
In this contribution, new data concerning bryophytes, fungi, and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the bryophyte genera Barbula, Fissidens, Gymnostomum, Jungermannia, Riccia, and Scapania, the fungal genera Hyalopsora and Urocystis and the lichen genera Arthothelium, Chaenotheca, Lepraria, Lobaria, Miriquidica, Parmelia, Rinodina, Solenopsora, Thelopsis and Xanthoparmelia. Keywords: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Bryidae, Jungermanniidae, Marchantiidae, floristic data.
30452Zvěřina O., Coufalík P., Barták M., Petrov M. & Komárek J. (2018): The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica). - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190:13 [9 p.].
Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metalswere comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself. Keywords: Lichen . Biomonitoring . Antarctica . Heavy metals.
30451Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Magain N., Lutzoni F., Goward T., Restrepo S. & Miadlikowska J. (2018): Contrasting symbiotic patterns in two closely related lineages of trimembered lichens of the genus Peltigera. - Frontiers in Microbiology, 9:2770 [14 p.].
Species circumscription is key to the characterization of patterns of specificity in symbiotic systems at a macroevolutionary scale. Here, a worldwide phylogenetic framework was used to assess the biodiversity and symbiotic patterns of association among partners in trimembered lichens from the genus Peltigera, section Chloropeltigera. We sequenced six loci of the main fungal partner and performed species discovery and validation analyses to establish putative species boundaries. Single locus phylogenies were used to establish the identity of both photobionts, Nostoc (cyanobacterium) and Coccomyxa (green alga). Distribution and specificity patterns were compared to the closely related clade, section Peltidea, which includes mainly Peltigera species with trimembered thalli. For section Chloropeltigera, eight fungal species (including five newly delimited putative species) were found in association with nine Nostoc phylogroups and two Coccomyxa species. In contrast, eight fungal species (including three newly delimited putative species) in section Peltidea were found in association with only four Nostoc phylogroups and the same two Coccomyxa species as for section Chloropeltigera. This difference in cyanobiont biodiversity between these two sections can potentially be explained by a significantly higher frequency of sexual reproductive structures in species from section Chloropeltigera compared to section Peltidea. Therefore, horizontal transmission of the cyanobiont might be more prevalent in Chloropeltigera species, while vertical transmission might be more common in Peltidea species. All Peltigera species in section Chloropeltigera are generalists in their association with Nostoc compared to more specialized Peltigera species in section Peltidea. Constrained distributions of Peltigera species that associate strictly with one species of green algae (Coccomyxa subellipsoidea) indicate that the availability of the green alga and the specificity of the interaction might be important factors limiting geographic ranges of trimembered Peltigera, in addition to constraints imposed by their interaction with Nostoc partners and by climatic factors. Keywords: Coccomyxa, Nostoc, sexual vs. asexual reproduction, species delimitation, symbiosis.
30450Lutzoni F., Nowak M.D., Alfaro M.E., Reeb V., Miadlikowska J., Krug M., Arnold A.E., Lewis L.A., Swofford D., Hibbett D., Hilu K., James T.Y., Quandt D. & Magallón S. (2018): Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis. - Nature Communications, 9:5451 [11 p.].
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma), likely facilitating terrestriality through endomycorrhizal and possibly endophytic symbioses. The largest radiation of fungi (Leotiomyceta), the origin of arbuscular mycorrhizae, and the diversification of extant embryophytes occurred ca. 480 Ma. This was followed by the origin of extant lichens. Saprotrophic mushrooms diversified in the Late Paleozoic as forests of seed plants started to dominate the landscape. The subsequent diversification and explosive radiation of Agaricomycetes, and eventually of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, were associated with the evolution of Pinaceae in the Mesozoic, and establishment of angiosperm-dominated biomes in the Cretaceous.
30449Santos F.T.J., Siqueira W.N., Santos M.L.O., Silva H.A.M.F., Sá J.L.F., Fernandes T.S., Silva N.H., França E.J., Silva E.B. & Melo A.M.M.A. (2018): Radiosensitizer effect of usnic acid on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. - International Journal of Radiation Biology, 94(9): 838–843.
Purpose: Some phytochemicals have shown the potential of being radiomodifiers, especially phenolic compounds, such as lichenic secondary metabolites. To evaluate the phytochemical usnic acid as a radiomodifier, embryonic cells of molluscs have been used due to their ease of collection, high sensitivity to physical and chemical agents, well-known embryology and low cost for analysis. Materials and methods: This study aimed to assess the radiosensitizing action of usnic acid on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. Samples were irradiated with 4Gy of gamma rays from a 60Co source (dose rate 2.906Gy/h). An acute toxicity test was performed using B. glabrata embryos in the blastula stage, in order to determine the toxicity of usnic acid and to establish the lethal Concentration for 50% (LC50). Subsequently, the radiomodifing capacity of usnic acid was estimated using assays with B. glabrata embryos. Results: Irradiation increased the number of non-viable embryos compared to unirradiated controls. Additionally, it was observed that embryos exposed to a non-toxic concentration of usnic acid (0.6 mg/ mL) before irradiation showed a further enhancement in non-viable embryos when compared with exposure to ionizing radiation alone. Conclusion: The results presented here indicate that usnic acid makes cells more sensitive to the damaging effects of radiation. Keywords: Biomphalaria glabrata, radiation, radiosensitization, usnic acid.
30448Pozo-Antonio J.S. & Sanmartín P. (2018): Exposure to artificial daylight or UV irradiation (A, B or C) prior to chemical cleaning: an effective combination for removing phototrophs from granite. - Biofouling, 34(8): 851–869.
This study evaluated whether exposing samples of granite colonized by a natural biofilm to artificial daylight or UV-A/B/C irradiation for 48 h enhanced removal of the biofilm with a chemical product previously approved for conservation of monuments by the European Biocide Directive. Rodas granite, which is commonly found in stone-built heritage monuments in Galicia (NW Spain), was naturally colonized by a sub-aerial biofilm. The efficacy of the cleaning method was evaluated relative to uncolonized surfaces and colonized control samples without previous irradiation, treated by dry-brushing or with benzalkonium chloride. The effect of UV irradiation in the combined treatment was evident, as comparable cleaning levels were not reached in the controls. Although the biofilm was not totally removed by any of the treatments, UV-B irradiation followed by benzalkonium chloride was potentially useful for cleaning stone, with results comparable to those achieved by UV-C irradiation, which is known to have germicidal effects.
30447Mallavadhani U.V., Boddu R., Rathod B.B. & Setty P.R. (2018): Stereoselective synthesis of the lichen metabolite, (+) montagnetol and its congeners as antimicrobial agents. - Synthetic Communications, 48(23): 2992–2999.
In view of structural diversity, (+) montagnetol, the major metabolite of the fruticose lichen, Roccella montagnei was synthesized along with three of its congeners by employing highly efficient protocols. (+) Montagnetol (2 R, 3S; 11) and (-) montagnetol (2S, 3R; 5) were synthesized in 7 and 9 steps, respectively, from L-ascorbic acid. The two new congeners 3 (2 R, 3R) and 6 (2S, 3S), which differ in configuration at C-2 and C-3 positions of the (+) montagnetol, were synthesized from (−) diethyl D-tartrate and (+) diethyl L-tartrate, respectively. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive (S. aureus and E. coli) and two Gram-negative (S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) bacteria and one fungal strain Candida albicans. Interestingly, the congener 3 showed promising anti-bacterial activity (MIC: 0.062 µg/ml) against P. aeruginosa, whereas the congener 6 displayed potent anti-fungal activity (MIC: 0.062 µg/ml) against C. albicans. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, diethyl tartrate, L-ascorbic acid, montagnetol, Roccella montagnei.
30446Weber B., Tamm A., Maier S. & Rodríguez-Caballero E. (2018): Biological soil crusts of the Succulent Karoo: a review. - African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 35: 335–350.
The Succulent Karoo is characterised by a dense coverage of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) belonging to different types and successional stages. Whereas the Soebatsfontein region hosts cyanobacteria-dominated and minor amounts of lichen- and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts, the Knersvlakte comprises a rich cover of hypolithic crusts growing on the sides and undersides of quartz pebbles. Apart from dominating photosynthesizers used to classify biocrusts, each crust type hosts a rich and specific fungal and bacterial community and also diverse protists. In a remote-sensing mapping approach, soil-inhabiting biocrusts of the Soebatsfontein region covered ~27% of the surface area, whereas in the Knersvlakte soil-inhabiting biocrusts covered ~16% and hypolithic biocrusts ~42% of the region. Combining these data with biomass contents, results suggested that the Knersvlakte, despite somewhat harsher environmental conditions, harboured about 65% more biocrust biomass per surface area. In physiological measurements we observed that biocrusts emit the reactive nitrogen compounds nitric oxide and nitrous acid, showing water pulse-dependent emission patterns. In addition, CO2 gas fixation showed characteristic type-specific patterns depending on climatic conditions. Long-term microclimate measurements along a gradient revealed that forecasted climate and land-use change may be detrimental for biocrusts with potentially adverse effects on soil stability and overall fertility of the Succulent Karoo. Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, CO2 gas exchange, reactive nitrogen compounds, remote sensing.
30445Frisch A., Thor G., Moon K.H. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Galbinothrix, a new monotypic genus of Chrysotrichaceae (Arthoniomycetes) lacking pulvinic acid derivatives. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 63(2): 31–37.
Galbinothrix caesiopruinosa is described from Japan and Korea. The new genus and species is placed in Chrysotrichaceae by its ascoma morphology and by a phylogenetic analysis of mtSSU and nLSU sequence data using Bayesian and maximum likelihood inference. The monotypic genus Galbinothrix is superficially similar to Chrysothrix caesia in having dark brown ascomata covered by a thin bluish grey pruina, reddish brown ascomatal pigment in the epithecium and proper exciple, the greyish green to yellowish olive thallus, and usnic acid as the main secondary thallus compound. It differs from this species and all other Chrysotrichaceae by its large, oblong, thick-walled ascospores with a distinct epispore, the narrowly clavate to almost tubular asci, and the never clearly granular to leprose thallus. Key words: Arthoniales, Ascomycota, East Asia, taxonomy, lichenized fungi.
30444Miadlikowska J., Magain N., Pardo-De la Hoz C.J., Niu D., Goward T., Sérusiaux E. & Lutzoni F. (2018): Species in section Peltidea (aphthosa group) of the genus Peltigera remain cryptic after molecular phylogenetic revision. - Plant and Fungal Systematics, 63(2): 45–64.
Closely related lichen-forming fungal species circumscribed using phenotypic traits (morphospecies) do not always align well with phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data. Using multilocus data obtained from a worldwide sampling, we inferred phylogenetic relationships among five currently accepted morphospecies of Peltigera section Peltidea (P. aphthosa group). Monophyletic circumscription of all currently recognized morphospecies (P. britannica, P. chionophila, P. frippii and P. malacea) except P. aphthosa, which contained P. britannica, was confirmed with high bootstrap support. Following their re-delimitation using bGMYC and Structurama, BPP validated 14 putative species including nine previously unrecognized potential species (five within P. malacea, five within P. aphthosa, and two within P. britannica). Because none of the undescribed potential species are corroborated morphologically, chemically, geographically or ecologically, we concluded that these monophyletic entities represent intraspecific phylogenetic structure, and, therefore, should not be recognized as new species. Cyanobionts associated with Peltidea mycobionts (51 individuals) represented 22 unique rbcLX haplotypes from five phylogroups in Clade II subclades 2 and 3. With rare exceptions, Nostoc taxa involved in trimembered and bimembered associations are phylogenetically closely related (subclade 2) or identical, suggesting a mostly shared cyanobiont pool with infrequent switches. Based on a broad geographical sampling, we confirm a high specificity of Nostoc subclade 2 with their mycobionts, including a mutualistically exclusive association between phylogroup III and specific lineages of P. malacea. Key words: cyanolichen, molecular systematics, morphospecies, Nostoc, phylogeny, species delimitation, specificity, symbiosis.
30443Adamska E. & Juśkiewicz W. (2018): Visualisation of the influence of habitat on lichen occurrence, Toruń, Poland. - Journal of Maps, 14(1): 9–16.
The main aim of the paper was a visual comparison of lichen distribution with urban environmental factors. This paper presents a cartographic method for representing the spatial distribution of anthropogenic and natural factors in atmospheric air pollution and prevalent elements of the natural environment and their correlation to occurrences of two selected lichen species – the acidophilous Hypogymnia physodes and the nitrophilous Xanthoria parietina in the area of Toruń (Central Poland). Lichens are a good indicator of changes in habitat conditions. Analyses of the occurrence of lichens in Toruń were conducted for data covering a period of more than 60 years. A choropleth map method (a square tile grid map) was used, based on a grid of 144 one-kilometre squares (ATPOL). An inventory of taxa was made in 137 squares (localities). This recorded the type of substrate and abundance (extent) of occurrence. Keywords: Choropleth map – square tile grid map, anthropopressure, lichens, urban ecology, the city of Toruń, Poland.
30442Aptroot A., Sparrius L.B. & Alvarado P. (2018): Aquacidia, a new genus to accommodate a group of skiophilous temperate Bacidia species that belong in the Pilocarpaceae (lichenized ascomycetes). - Gorteria, 40: 11–14.
The new genus Aquacidia is proposed to accommodate three temperate Bacidia species that belong in the Pilocarpaceae and are not related to the type species B. rosella, which is in the Ramalinaceae. The phylogenetic position was clarified by an analysis of the mtSSU region showing a distinct lineage within the Pilocarpaceae. The following new combinations are proposed: Aquacidia antricola (Hulting) Aptroot (syn. Bacidia antricola, B. carneoglauca), A. trachona (Ach.) Aptroot, and A. viridifarinosa (Coppins & P. James) Aptroot. A key to Aquacidia species is provided. Key words: Lecanorales; Ramalinaceae; riparian; saxicolous lichens.
30441Zraik M., Booth T. & Piercey-Normore M.D. (2018): Relationship between lichen species composition, secondary metabolites and soil pH, organic matter, and grain characteristics in Manitoba. - Botany, 96: 267–279.
Many lichen secondary metabolites have functions related to the environmental conditions of lichen habitats but few studies have compared soil characteristics with lichen species composition or their secondary products. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between soil characteristics with lichen species composition and secondary metabolites. Five locations were chosen in Manitoba, each with five sites (transects), and each transect with five quadrats (1 m × 1 m). All species were collected from each of the quadrats, presence of secondary metabolites was determined by thin layer chromatography, and soil characteristics were examined. The results revealed that rounded sand grains were significantly higher in southeastern Manitoba than in other locations, corresponding to a distinct species composition. Angular grains were significantly higher in northern locations, corresponding to a different group of species. Some of the significant relationships between soil characteristics and secondary metabolites include correlations of atranorin with pH, organic matter, and sand content; fumarprotocetraric acid with organic matter and sand content; and usnic acid with pH and organic matter. A better understanding of the role of lichens with respect to soil characteristics will be important for improving soil stabilization in land reclamation. Key words: Cladonia, lichen species, organic matter, sand particles, secondary metabolites.
30440Power T.D., Cameron R.P., Neily T. & Toms B. (2018): Forest structure and site conditions of boreal felt lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum) habitat in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada. - Botany, 96: 449–459.
Boreal felt lichen [Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M. Jorg. (1972)] occurs on mainland Nova Scotia as well as Cape Breton, growing almost entirely on balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] in wet coastal forests. A Geographical Information System (GIS) based predictive model for E. pedicellatum habitat in Nova Scotia has facilitated surveys and guided conservation. We used this model to examine the relationship between presence of E. pedicellatum and forest structure (tree DBH, height, age, and crown closure, inter-tree distance, basal area of live and dead trees, and percent cover of shrubs, herbs, Sphagnum spp., and other mosses), and site conditions (topographic position, slope, aspect, and drainage) as well as the presence of lichen indicator species. Erioderma pedicellatum sites had significantly older trees, higher density of live trees, lower crown closure, lower basal area of live Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., lower basal area of live trees, higher basal area of dead trees, higher Sphagnum spp. cover, and lower shrub cover than unoccupied habitat. Erioderma pedicellatum sites were significantly less well drained and occurred on steeper slopes with a north or east aspect. Four macrolichens (Coccocarpia palmicola, Platismatia norvegica, Lobaria scrobiculata, and Sphaerophorus globosus) occurred at a significantly higher frequency at E. pedicellatum sites. Key words: Erioderma pedicellatum, boreal felt lichen, habitat, forest structure, predictive model.
30439McMullin R.T., Maloles J.R., Selva S.B. & Newmaster S.G. (2018): A synopsis of Chaenotheca in North America, including a new species from southern Ontario, C. selvae, supported by morphometric analyses. - Botany, 96: 547–553.
We describe and illustrate a new species of calicioid lichen from southern Ontario, Chaenotheca selvae. We place it in Chaenotheca because of its lichenized thallus with a Stichococcus photobiont, a brown mazaedium, and ascospores that are brown, spherical, and single-celled (3.0–3.6 m in diam.). It differs from other species of Chaenotheca by its photobiont, non-ornamented ascospores, straight stalks, and producing orange-brown pruina on the mazaedium, excipulum, and upper portion of the stalk when mature. Using a detrended correspondence analysis we identified 25 taxa, including the sp. nov., analyzing 22 morphological characters. Our results provide evidence of chemical and morphometric variation among species of Chaenotheca. We also provide a key for the identification of the 25 Chaenotheca species in North America. Key words: calicioid, Caliciales, Coniocybaceae, Great Lakes region, old-growth forest.
30438Husová M. & Andresová J. (1992): Das Cladonio rangiferinae-Pinetum sylvestris des Landschaftsschutzgebietes Křivoklátsko (Mittelböhmen) und seine Stellung im phytozönologischen System. - Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica, 27: 357–386.
phytocenology; lichens from relevés identified by J.Liška
30437Orekhova A., Marečková M., Hazdrová J. & Barták M. (2018): The effect of upper cortex absence on spectral reflectance indices in Antarctic lichens during thallus dehydration. - Czech Polar Reports, 8(1): 107–118.
In maritime Antarctica, lichens and mosses represent dominant autotrophs forming community structure of vegetation oases. In our study, we selected 4 most common lichen species (Xanthoria elegans, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Leptogium puberulum, Physconia muscigena) and monospecific colony of Nostoc commune typical for James Ross Island (Antarctica) for detailed physiological experiments. We investigated their spectral characteristics in response to hydration status of their thalli. In samples desiccating from fully wet (RWC, relative water content of 100%) to dry state (RWC = 0), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were evaluated for control thalli and those with removed upper cortex. In this way, the effect of presence/absence of the upper cortex on PRI, NDVI was studied. PRI showed either no change or species-specific an increase/decrease with dehydration. Removal of the upper cortex caused both PRI decrease (N. commune, P. muscigena) and increase (R. melanophthalma, L. puberulum). Removal of the upper cortex led to increase in NDVI in all species, typically within the RWC range of 20-100%. Species-specific differences of hydration-response curves of PRI and NDVI are discussed as well as the role of the absence of the upper cortex in the evaluation of spectral characteristics in desiccating lichens. Key words: PRI, NDVI, cyanolichens, chlorolichens, Nostoc commune.
30436Sonina A.V., Rumjantseva A.D., Tsunskaya A.A. & Androsova V.I. (2017): Adaptations of epilithic lichens to the microclimate conditions of the White Sea coast. - Czech Polar Reports, 7(2): 133–143.
Anatomical and functional features of the following three epilithic lichens Umbilicaria torrefacta, Physcia caesia, Physcia dubia were studied. These species have different morphological characteristics of thalli and occupy similar environmental conditions on supralittoral of the White Sea coast. The studied lichens are widespread in the territory of Karelia. U. torrefacta is an obligate epilithic species, Physcia caesia and Physcia dubia colonize both bark of trees and stones. Within the study area, these species were found only on coastal boulders. Photobiont of all studied lichens is unicellular green alga of the genus Trebouxia (Purvis et al. 1992). Based on the study, it was found that Ph. caesia adapts to the environmental conditions through the variability of photosynthetic pigments level which is confirmed by a strong variation of the chlorophylls a/b ratio and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio (coefficient of variation, CV > 42%) with the stability of anatomical structures (CV ≤ 11%) – functional adaptation. Lichen Ph. dubia adapts through the variability of anatomical layers (upper cortex, algal layer, medullae, lower cortex, thallus thickness) (CV > 22%), and amounts of photosynthetic pigments (CV > 19%) – structural and functional adaptation. For U. torrefacta, the structural adaptation to environmental conditions (CV thickness of anatomical layers > 28%, CV amounts of photosynthetic pigments – 7, 8%) was recorded. Key words: coastal zone, Umbilicaria torrefacta, Physcia caesia, Physcia dubia, physiology, anatomy, adaptations.
30435Xiao J., Vogl J., Rosner M., Deng L. & Jin Z. (2019): A validated analytical procedure for boron isotope analysis in plants by MC-ICP-MS. - Talanta, 196: 389–394.
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth. Lack of valid methods for pretreatment and measurement of δ11B in plant restrict applications of it in the biosphere. Dry ashing, one step cation exchange and micro-sublimation were combined to separate and purify boron (B) in plant tissues. The low procedure blank, high B recovery and the accurate δ11B values of the plant reference materials demonstrate that this method is suitable and valid for B pretreatment and δ11B measurement in plant samples by MC-ICP-MS. Based on this method, the δ11B in different plants (Brassica napus, Chenopodium album L, moss, lichen, and Nostoc commune) was analyzed. For Brassica napus, δ11B increased gradually from root to leaf, and then decreased to rapeseed. For the same parts, the δ11B increased from the lower parts to the higher parts. This variation may be due to the B(OH)3 transporter of NIP6;1 and the incorporation of B into the cell. The reason for lower δ11B values in shell and rapeseed compared to those in leaves presumably is to the preferred transport of borate in the phloem. The largest δ11B fractionation between leaf and root in Brassica napus and Chenopodium album L was +24.2‰ and +26.6‰, respectively. The large variation and fractionation of δ11B within plants indicates that δ11B is a good tracer to study the B translocation mechanisms and metabolism within plants. The δ11B in Nostoc commune, lichen, and moss showed variations of -4.1‰ to +21.5‰, −9.4‰ to +7.3‰, and −18.3‰ to +11. 9‰, respectively. In the same site, δ11B in different plants ranked Nostoc commune>moss>lichen and δ11B in mosses growing in different environment ranked soil>tree>rock. Rain and soil available B are the main B sources for these plants. The δ11B in Nostoc commune, lichen, and moss may be a useful tracer to study the atmospheric B input. In the future, plants culture experiments under certain environments and studies from molecular level are necessary to decipher the variation of δ11B and fractionation mechanisms within plants. Keywords: Boron isotope; Isotopic fractionation; Micro-sublimation; Plant tissue; MC-ICP-MS.
30434Ardelean I.V., Crișan F., Gaft D. & Roman A. (2019): High lichen species richness but low taxonomic diversity built up on abandoned tailings heaps in a cultural landscape. - Flora, 251: 68–76.
We aimed to detect species distribution patterns at landscape level that have arisen following the colonisation of a mine spoil heap (MSH) by macrolichens. All taxa occurring on various substrates and the degree of occupancy by different vegetation patch types were recorded at a resolution of 50m×50m within a regular square grid of 25 ha, which extended over a 60-year-old abandoned MSH and its adjacent agro-pastoral area. The fraction of MSH was the most important predictor of the lichen composition and richness at grid cell level, followed by the terrain slope and the proportion of heathland. Almost all lichen taxa positively correlated with the MSH fraction were terricolous, fruticose, oligotrophilous, acidophilous species that occurred preferentially on the steep, barren slopes. The few corticolous, nitrophilous species were negatively correlated with the MSH fraction. Except for the corticolous and saprophytic species, the proportion of MSH and the elevation range had each a positive effect on both total and terricolous lichen richness. Conversely, taxonomic distinctness displayed an opposite pattern. Such a contrast was determined by the numerous conspecific (Cladonia) lichens occurring on the steeper MSH slopes, with scarce vegetation. A conspicuous nestedness, but no pattern of species turnover, was detected along the main ecological gradient. This was due to both the corticolous/saprophytic species shared with the adjacent, tailings-free habitats and the terricolous/saxicolous lichens dispersed from proximal source-habitats. The MSH studied can be considered a hotspot for lichen species richness but not for taxonomic diversity. Keywords: Functional groups; Nestedness pattern; Species accumulation curve; Species turnover; Terrain slope; Vegetation patch cover.
30433Hou L., Jin Y., Sun W., Guan S., Gu H., Wang Q., Zhang L. & Du Y. (2019): Metabolites identification of (+)-usnic acid in vivo by ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. - Fitoterapia, 133: 85–95.
(+)-usnic acid (UA) is an active natural phenolic acid ingredient originating from Chinese traditional Tibetan herb. Usnea acid is expected to become a new agent for anticancer and remarkable antitumor. To reveal its metabolic profile, metabolites identification of UA in vivo was studied using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) in this present study. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a mobile phase consisted of methanol and water with a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The mass spectral analysis conducted in a negative electrospray ionization mode combined with information-dependent acquirement technology (IDA) was used to trace all the potential UA metabolites. Several sensitive and specific multiple data-mining techniques especially key product ions (KPIs) filter were applied to hunt and identify metabolites rapidly. As a result, a total of 36 metabolites were detected after oral administration of UA, including 33, 8 and 16 in rat urine, plasma and bile, respectively. These results showed that the probable metabolite pathways of UA were oxidation, reduction, dihydroxylation, glycine conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, N-acetylcysteine conjugation and methylation. It is the first time to elucidate the profile of UA in vivo. These results not only provided the basis of UA pharmacological properties, but also gave the guidance in clinical medication. Moreover, the analysis strategy and methodology proposed in this paper could be widely used in characterization of other phenolic acids metabolites. Keywords: (+)-usnic acid; UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS; In vivo; Metabolites; Identification.
30432Wirth V., Tønsberg T., Reif A. & Stevenson D. (2018): Loxospora cristinae found in Germany. - Herzogia, 31: 995–999.
Loxospora cristinae, a sterile crustose lichen recently described from Poland, was discovered also in Germany. The ecological conditions at the locality in southern Black Forest are characterized. Key words: Epiphytes, oldgrowth forests, sterile crustose lichens.
30431Yakovchenko L., Davydov E.A., Paukov A., Frisch A., Galanina I., Han J.E., Moon K.H. & Kashiwadani H. (2018): New lichen records from Korea – I. Mostly arctic-alpine and tropical species. - Herzogia, 31: 965–981.
Fifteen lichen species are reported as new to Korea. These are mainly azonal arctic-alpine or tropical taxa as well as boreal species of microlichens. Rinodina badiexcipula, hitherto only known from North America, is first reported for Eurasia. Rhizocarpon timdalii is new to Asia. Boreoplaca ultrafrigida, Cryptothecia subnidulans, Enterographa hutchinsiae, Immersaria athroocarpa, Lecidea fuscoatra, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Rhabdodiscus inalbescens, Rhizocarpon eupetraeoides, R. saanaёnse, Rimularia limborina, Rinodina tephraspis, Sarcogyne endopetrophila, and Septotrapelia usnica as well as the four genera Boreoplaca, Cryptothecia, Immersaria, and Rhabdodiscus are new to Korea. New localities are given for 22 species. A sorediate morph of the pantropical Enterographa leucolyta was occasionally observed together with the more common esorediate specimens. Key words: Biogeography, East Asia, lichenized Ascomycota, new records.
30430Maphangwa K.W., Sipman H.J.M., Tekere M. & Zedda L. (2018): Epiphytic lichen diversity on Jacaranda and Acacia trees in Pretoria (Tshwane, Republic of South Africa). - Herzogia, 31: 949–964.
The epiphytic lichen diversity in and around the city of Pretoria (Tshwane, South Africa) has been investigated in 11 sites representing different land use types. Lichens were collected from three tree species: Jacaranda mimosifolia, Acacia karoo and A. caffra. Twenty-four taxa were recorded and are listed with notes on their ecology and distribution. Small foliose lichens of the family Physciaceae appear to be predominant, while crustose lichens are rare and fruticose lichens absent. The highest lichen diversity is found in protected areas, and comprises predominantly subtropical to tropical species. By contrast, at strongly disturbed and contaminated sites only few species are found, mostly Heterodermia speciosa and the cosmopolitan Candelaria concolor and Hyperphyscia adglutinata. No substantial differences in lichen richness could be detected among the three phorophytes. However, Jacaranda, being more common in disturbed areas, hosted more frequently species typical for disturbed conditions. Key words: Biodiversity, lichenized fungi, distribution, savannah biome, man-made disturbance.
30429Hafellner J. & van den Boom P.P.G. (2018): Combined lichenological results of two one-day trips to Liechtenstein. - Herzogia, 31: 931–948.
The lichen flora of Liechtenstein was investigated at five localities along a rough altitudinal transect by the senior author and at two lowland localities by the co-author. Altogether 114 lichenized taxa and 22 species of lichenicolous fungi have been identified, of which 75 species of lichens, 17 lichenicolous fungi and two non-lichenized ascomycetes represent new records for Liechtenstein. The study constitutes apparently the first major contribution to the knowledge about diversity of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in this country and fills at least partly an existing gap in the information concerning the distribution of lichens in the Alps. Key words: Alps, biodiversity, lichenized fungi, lichenicolous fungi.
30428Brackel W. v., Cezanne R., Eichler M., Feuerer T., Gnüchtel A., Hohmann M.-L., Otte V., Schultz M. & Türk R. (2018): Lichenologische Ergebnisse der Jahresexkursion 2014 der BLAM in Ettal, ergänzt um weitere Flechtendaten aus der Umgebung von Garmisch-Partenkirchen. - Herzogia, 31: 893–930.
The lichenological results of the excursion of the Bryologisch-lichenologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mitteleuropa in August 2014 with additions from pre- and post-excursions are presented. Five species are new to Germany: Buellia arborea and the lichenicolous fungi Buelliella minimula, Cladophialophora cladoniae, Dactylospora suburceolata and Merismatium decolorans. Cladonia acuminata is a rediscovery for Germany. Four species are new to Bavaria: Chaenotheca subroscida, Lecanora antiqua, Placynthium hungaricum, Unguiculariopsis lettaui; a rediscovery in Bavaria is Parabagliettoa disjuncta. New finds for the Bavarian Alps are Absconditella lignicola, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Chaenotheca chlorella, Enchylium limosum, Lepraria jackii, Metamelanea umbonata, Parmelia serrana, Psorotichia lutophila, Ramalina baltica and Verrucaria bryoctona. Thelidium zwackhii and Thelocarpon impressellum were rediscovered in the Bavarian Alps. Numerous species are listed for the first time for the Mittelstock of the Bavarian Alps (Ammergebirge, Wettersteingebirge and Estergebirge). Key words: Lichens, lichenicolous fungi, biodiversity, Germany, Bavaria.
30427Amrani S., Seaward M.R.D., Sipman H.J.M. & Feuerer T. (2018): Lichenological exploration of Algeria II: checklist of lichenized, lichenicolous and allied fungi. - Herzogia, 31: 817–892.
Despite more than two centuries of almost uninterrupted studies of the Algerian lichen flora, its diversity, ecology and biogeography remain much under-explored. Following the publication of our historical overview of lichenological exploration of Algeria (1798 –2013) and an annotated bibliography of 171 titles in 2015, it was thought necessary to provide a basis for future studies in the form of a checklist of Algerian lichens and lichenicolous fungi. In all, 1051 lichen taxa and 43 species of lichenicolous and allied fungi are listed, and their synonyms used in publications on Algerian lichens are provided. An attempt has also been made to provide basic biogeographical data. Keywords: lichens, biodiversity, North Africa, Mediterranean, history of Algerian lichenology.
30426Hertel H. (2018): Prof. Dr. Franz Oberwinkler (1939–2018) und Seine Studien an Basidiolichenen. - Herzogia, 31: 767–782.
Obituary; biography
30425Beschel R. (1957): Lichenometrie im Gletschervorfeld. - Jahrbuch des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -Tiere, 22: 164–185.
30424Paul J. (1908): Beiträge zur Pilzflora von Mähren. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 47: 119–148.
30423Reichardt H.W. (1866): Lichenologische Notiz. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 16: 494–495.
Austria, Czech Republic
30422Wilmanns O. (1988): Können Trockenrasen derzeit trotz Immissionen überleben? - Eine kritische Analyse des Xerobrometum im Kaiserstuhl. - Carolinea, 46: 5–16.
May dry grassland communities survive in spite of immissions? - A critical analysis of the Xerobrometum in the Kaiserstuhl/SW-Germany. The object of this study was to ascertain whether changes due to immission, in particular nitrogenous immission, have occurred in the dry grasslands of the Kaiserstuhl, belonging to the Xero- brometum artemisietosum VON ROCHOW 1948. The study was carried out by comparing very recent vegetational relevés (1987) with those from earlier decades (beginning 1926) and by reference to descriptions by earlier authors. Symmorphology, synecology and synsystematics as prerequisites for the critical evaluation of possible floristic differences are presented, since not all differences can be interpreted as representing steps in auto- or allogenous successions. The following points could be demonstrated: 1. The mean species number per relevé on the Badberg has increased from 32,2 to 45,2. This was not the case for the other sites surveyed. 2. The average total cover has increased significantly. The decrease in some less competitive species (see Table 2) might be partially due to this change. 3. The species listed in Table 2 showed significant increases in their presence (Stetigkeit). The differences are considerably smaller than in those Mesobro- meta, which have lain fallow for many years. This observation is understandable when one considers that the Xerobrometa have almost never been mown although they have been very probably occasionally slightly disturbed by tredding or by transport of wood. Population fluctuation in the annuals amongst the Sedo-Scle- ranthetea species and in the pioneer species of the Dauco-Melilotion can be demonstrated. The increases in Verbascum lychnitis and Dactylis glomerata, two species usually regarded to be good nitrogen indicators, are discussed. They cannot be considered to represent evidence for a degeneration of the Xerobrometa due to immission. The increase in mosses and Cladonia spp. point to decreased disturbance through utilization of the surrounding vegetation. An advancing of Prunus spinosa, Ulmus minor and Robinia pseudacacia from old „bush cores" into the Mesobrometa and into the ecollogically intermediate Xerobrometum sanguisorbe- tosum VON ROCHOW 1948 for decades has been evident. Field elm and Robinia are dying back visibly since some years. The xerothermic heart areas, occupied by the Xerobrometum artemisietosum, are not expected to become overgrown - at least in the foreseeable future and in those cases when they are greater than ca. 10 m x 10 m in area.
30421Wettstein R. v. (1885): Schedae ad "Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico universitatis Vindobonensis editam. Auctore A. Kerner. Centuria IX—XII. Editio anni 1883. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 35: 247–249.
Exsiccat
30420Fehlner C. (1883): Schedae ad "Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico universitatis Vindobonensis editam, auctore A. Kerner. Wien, Frick. IV. Centurie. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 33: 52–55.
Exsiccat
30419Hopp U. & Kappen L. (1981): Einige Aspekte zur immissionsbedingten Verbreitung von Flechten im Stadtgebiet von Würzburg. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 52: 12–24.
30418Lojka H. (1868): Kleine Beiträge zur Lichenenflora Nieder-Oesterreichs. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 18: 517–520.
Lower Austria
30417Ginzberger A. & Rechinger K. (1902): Der Ellender Wald. (Eine floristische Skizze.). - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 52: 40–45.
30416C. Bl. [Bley C.] (1881): Nekrolog. Dr. Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst. - Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft Isis in Dresden, 1881: 35–38.
Obituary
30415Brackel W. v. (2010): Neuanlage von Magerrasen auf Ausgleichsflächen der Stadt München - Vergleich verschiedener Techniken [Establishment of oligotrophic grasslands on Munich’s compensation areas – a comparison between different techniques]. - Anliegen Natur, 34: 9–24.
In 1994-1997 an experiment to establish semi-dry grassland on former farmland was started in in the surroundings of the „Hochmutting-estate“ north of Munich. Several alternatives were tested. After eleven years of observation the variant of „mown swath transfer on bare gravel ground“ showed to be superior to all others. The variants „divot transfer“ and „top soil transfer“ did not show better results; moreover they are more sumptuous and lead to the destruction of the donor location. The variant „mown swath transfer on not-removed topsoil“ showed to be inferior to all other variants and is not suited as a compensation measure for the destruction of semi-dry grasslands.
30414Altehage C. (1960): Die VegetationsverhäItnisse des Naturschutzgebietes Berger Keienvenn im Kreise Lingen. - Veröffentlichungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Osnabrück, 29: 17–36.
30413Altehage C. (1962): Zwei ehemalige atlantische Florenstätten unweit Schüttorf und Friesoythe in Niedersachsen. - Veröffentlichungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Osnabrück, 30: 7–18.
30412Brackel W. v. & Brackel J. v. (2016): Ein Pilotversuch zur Wiederherstellung von Flechten-Kiefernwäldern [A pilot experiment for the restoration of lichen pine forests]. - Anliegen Natur, 38(1): 102–110.
Lichen pine forests covered large areas of the Nürnberger Reichswald up to the 1980s. Due to the cessation of litter raking and the input of atmospheric nitrogen compounds they disappeared except for small remnants, a phenomenon noticed in the whole Central European range. Since 2012 a pilot experiment is running to reconvert moss rich pine forests to lichen pine forests. For this purpose the pine canopy was thinned out and the pine shrubs were cleared on the entire experimental site. In subareas the topsoil was removed and then they were inoculated with lichen fragments. First results show how fast the measures may lead to success: after only four years on the stripped and inoculated plot the typical species of the lichen pine forests showed a higher coverage then on the reference plots where only the canopy was thinned out.
30411Jeschke M. (2009): Auswirkungen verschiedener Renaturierungsund Managementverfahren auf die Artendiversität von Gefäßpflanzen und Kryptogamen in Kalkmagerrasen [Impacts of various restoration and management techniques on species diversity of vascular plants and cryptogams in oligotrophic calcareous grasslands]. - Laufener Spezialbeiträge, 2/2009: 103–112.
Effects of different restoration and management regimes on the species diversity of vascular and cryptogamous plants in calcareous grassland Different restoration and conservation measures were studied in three nature reserves in Southern Germany and Switzerland (Garchinger Heide, Kissinger Heide, Merishausener Gräte), using vegetation samples with different plot sizes. The nature reserve “Garchinger Heide” showed significantly lower numbers of vascular plant species than the other nature reserves, probably due to a lower intensity of mowing (every second year) practised in the past. The most efficient method to restore nutrient rich sites was shown to be topsoil removal in combination with transfer of diaspore-rich hay or raking material. Initial ploughing in combination with yearly mowing or grazing led to high vascular plant species numbers. Bryophyte, lichen and overall species diversity was reduced, however. Other mowing regimes as well as controlled burning in spring increased tall grass cover and reduced both rare species total species numbers. Hay transfer generated species-rich stands, but it also facilitates the spread of pleurocarpous mosses which can inhibit less competitive species.
30410Pichler G. & Speta F. (1997): Ein spätbiedermeierliches Pflanzenverzeichnis aus Hallstatt. - Beiträge zur Naturkunde Oberösterreichs, 5: 333–346.
The hand-written and still existing history of Hallstatt (Upper Austria) written by Johann PILZ from 1800 onwards, has an inventory of plants attached. This inventory which has been compiled by Johann Pilz (maybe influenced by Franz GLÜCK?) lists 139 plants from sites around Hallstatt. The table originating from the first half of the 19th century has been reproduced in original letters and Latin names as used today have been added. Two lichens included in the list (Cetraria islandica, Lobaria pulmonaria).
30409Dunzendorfer W. (1974): Pflanzensoziologie der Wälder und Moore des oberösterreichischen Böhmerwaldes. - Natur- und Landschaftsschutz in Oberösterreich 3, Linz, 110 p. [+ 6 tabs].
30408Poetsch J.S. & Schiedermayr K.B. (1872): Systematische Aufzählung der im Erzherzogthume Oesterreich ob der Enns bisher beobachteten samenlosen Pflanzen (Kryptogamen). - K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellschaft, Wien, 384 p.
30407Gistel J. (1864): Die Flora des Sumawa-Gebirges nach ihren topischen und verticalen Verbreitungsformen. - Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 30(1): 214–255.
30406Punz W., Engenhart M. & Schinninger R. (1986): Zur Vegetation einer Eisenerzschlackenhalde bei Leoben/Donawitz. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 116: 205–210.
Spontaneous vegetation on an iron slag heap near Leoben/Donawitz (Styria, Austria) is dominated by a single moss species (Tortula inermis). The vegetation on this site is presented and discussed with respect to the extreme ecological conditions.
30405Zopf W. (1890): Die Pilze in morphologischer, physiologischer, biologischer und systematischer Beziehung. - E.Trewendt, Breslau, 500 p.
30404Fehlner C. (1884): Schedae ad „Floram exsiccatam Austro-Hungaricam" a Museo botanico Universitatis Vindobonensis editam. Centuria VIII. - Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 34: 176–179.
Exsiccat
30403Picbauer R. (1941): Beitrag zur Pilzflora von Böhmen, Mähren und der Slowakei. - Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 73: 177–203.
Diplodina Sandstedei Zopf. Auf Cladonia pyxidata. am Annaberg bei Weikersdorf nächst Zöptau (Dr. Cernik).
30402Zumpfe H. (1929): Vorarbeiten zu einer Pflanzengeographischen Karte Österreichs. XIII. Oberösterreichische Moore. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Hechtensee-Gebietes. - Abhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich, 15(2): 1–100.
30401Firbas F. & Sigmond H. (1928): Vegetationsstudien auf dem Donnersberge im Böhmischen Mittelgebirge. - Lotos, 76: 113–172.
30400Zwanzinger G.A. (1869): Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora von Kärnten. - Jahrbuch des Naturhistorischen Landesmuseums von Kärnten, 10: 114–139.
Austria; Carinthia
30399Rudolph K., Firbas F. & Sigmond H. (1928): Das Koppenplanmoor im Riesengebirge. (Ein Beispiel für den subalpinen Moortypus in Böhmen). - Lotos, 76: 173–222.
30398Kaule G. (1976): Die Moore des Ammergebirges und seines Vorlandes. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 47: 151–173.
30397Lämmermayr L. (1928): Weitere Beiträge zur Flora der Magnesit- und Serpentinböden. - Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 137: 55–99.
30396Hagen K. (1996): Vegetationsveränderungen in Kalk-Magerrasen des Fränkischen Jura. Untersuchung langfristiger Bestandsveränderungen als Reaktion auf Nutzungsumstellung und Stickstoff-Deposition. - Laufener Forschungsbericht, 4: 1–218.
30395Dittrich J. (1941): Die Moore der Umgebung Marienbads. - Lotos, 88: 127–145.
30394Kolbek J. (1998): Das Pulsatillo pratensis-Festucetum valesiacae in Böhmen. - Tuexenia, 18: 207–216.
The Pulsatillo pratensis-Festucetum valesiacae Klika ex Kolbek (with two subassociations: thymetosum pulegioidis subass. nova and thymetosum praecocis subass. nova) is described as new. Both subassociations are documented by phytosociological relevés and classified into the Festucion valesiacae (Festuco-Brometea). Floristic composition, synecology (namely soil characteristics) and distribution in Bohemia are given. Keywords: Czech Republic, Festucion valesiacae, xerotherm grasslands. Several terricolous lichens listed from phytosociological relevés.
30393Marstaller R. (2010): Moosgesellschaften in der Porphyrkuppenlandschaft bei Halle/S. (Sachsen-Anhalt). - Hercynia, 43: 19–70.
Bryophyte communities in the landscape of porphyry outcrops near Halle/S. (Saxony Anhalt).
30392Gauckler K. (1937): Steppenheide und Steppenheidewaid der Fränkischen Aih in pflanzensozioiogischer, ökologischer und geographischer Betrachtung. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 23: 5–134.
30391Kretschmer L. (1931): Die Pflanzengesellschaften auf Serpentin im Gurhofgraben bei Melk. - Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien, 80: 163–208.
30390Gauckler K. (1953): Serpentin Vegetation in Nordbayern. - Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 30: 19–26.
On vegetation of serpentinic / ultramafic bedrock in Northern Bavaria. Lichens identified by O. Klement.
30389Meusel H.H.H. (1939): Aus dem Schrifttum I. Neuere Arbeiten über die Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung Niederer Pflanzen, insbesondere von Moosen und Flechten. - Hercynia, 1: 327–332.
30388Gams H. (1939): Über einige flechtenreiche Trockenrasen Mitteldeutschlands. - Hercynia, 1: 277–284.
30387Köstner B. & Lange O.L. (1986): Epiphytische Flechten in bayerischen Waldschadensgebieten des nördlichen Alpenraumes: Floristisch-soziologische Untersuchungen und Vitalitätstests durch Photosynthesemessungen. - Berichte der Bayerischen Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, 10: 185–210.
The flora and vegetation of epiphytic lichens were investigated in forests of the Bavarian Alps (around Garmisch-Partenkirchen) in which the spruce trees (Picea abies) exhibit different degrees of the characteristic symptoms of forest damage reputed to be associated with air pollution. Characteristic lichen communities were: the Nephrometum belli on the lower trunks of maple trees (Acerpseudoplatanus), the Parmeliopsidetum ambiguae on the lower trunks, primarily on spruce, and the Pseudevernie- tum furfuraceae and the Usneetum florido-neglec- tae predominantly on the upper crowns of the trees. Seventy-six taxa of lichens were identified. Samples of two species, namely of the widely distributed Pseudevernia furfuracea and of Lobaria pulmonaria, which has a very specific habitat preference, were collected from different areas and their physiological activity was tested by means of C02-exchange measurements in the laboratory. Metabolic activity was characterized by parameters such as dark respiration, light compensation point, initial slope of the light response curve of net photosynthesis, and photosynthetic capacity at saturating photon flux density. All measurements were conducted at saturating external CO2 partial pressure. Lichens are known as useful bioindicators of air pollution, being especially sensitive to S02. This has been reported in the literature in field correlations as well as in laboratory fumigation experiments. In the present study, there were no indications of any impact of sulphur dioxide on the viability or phsiological activity of the epiphytic lichens. Lichen species and communities in these forests occur which are known to be very SCVsensitive. Photosynthetic activity of selected species did not show any correlation with the degree of damage of the forests where they had been sampled (damage classes 0 -1 to 1 - 2). A rich vegetation of lichens, including sensitive species, was found growing even directly on branches of spruce trees which were damaged, as indicated by chlorosis and loss of needles (Piets. 2 and 3). Since lichens in these habitats are apparently not affected by SO2 and since it is known that specific lichens respond more sensitively to S02 than higher plants, it is concluded from these findings, that a direct influence of atmospheric sulphur dioxide is likely not the cause of the observed tree damage. Naturally, this conclusion must be restricted to the area of this study. Conditions certainly may be different in other areas of forest damage. The present study with lichens also does not necessarily have any bearing on the possible role of air-born photochemical oxidants for the tree damage in this study area.
30386Kolbek J. (1999): Der Unterverband Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae in Böhmen. - Tuexenia, 19: 343–349.
Only one community of the suballiance Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae has been known hitherto from the Czech Republic, viz. Diantho deltoidis-Festucetum rupicolae, which occurs in the western half of the country. The characteristics of the community, its species composition, synecology, synchorology, successional relationships, etc., are described. The community is documented by phyto- cenological relevés and soil analysis. Keywords: Coronillo variae-Festucenion rupicolae, Czech Republic, Diantho deltoidis-Festucetum rupicolae, Festucion valesiacae, xerothermic grasslands, phytocenology. Numerous lichens (especially Cladonia spp.) listed from relevés.
30385Rambold G. (1985): Fütterungsexperiment mit den an Flechten fressenden Raupen von Setina aurita Esp. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). - Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen, 34: 82–90.
It can be shown that the caterpillars of Setina aurita Esp. feed on numerous lichens containing various lichen substances. Lichens with vulpinic, salazinic or thamnolic acid as major secondary substances were refused. Depositions of iron compounds or calcium oxalate in the thallus do not protect the lichen from being eaten. The kind of damage caused by caterpillars of Setina aurita Esp. depends on the growth form of the lichen. The lepidoptera of Central Europe, whose caterpillars feed on lichens are listed.
30384Mihelčič F. (1967): Baummose und Flechten als Lebenstätten für Tardigraden. - Carinthia II, 157/77: 227–236.
30383Klemun M. (1989): Franz Xaver Freiherr von Wulfen-Jesuit und Naturforscher. - Carinthia II, 179/99: 5–17.
Biography
30382Kernstock E. (1897): Einiges über die Flechten. - Carinthia II, 87: 13–22 & 68–77.
30381Kernstock [E.] (1897): Dr. J. Steiner, Lichenes Carinthiae exsiccati. (Nr. 251–301.). - Carinthia II, 87: 38–42.
Exsiccat
30380Zedrosser T. (1925): Die Flechten des Lavanttales. - Carinthia II, 114–115/34–35: 29–38.
30379Komposch H. & Breuss O. (2013): Erstnachweise lichenisierter und nicht-lichenisierter Pilze für Kärnten, die Steiermark, Niederösterreich und Österreich. - Carinthia II, 203/123: 495–506.
A list of 15 lichenized and one non-lichenized ascomycetes, representing new records for the Austrian provinces carinthia, styria or Lower Austria is presented along with photographs and short notes on their autecology and/or distribution. most species were discovered within the framework of a lichenological survey of the calcareous landslide area of mount Dobratsch in carinthia, others were detected in the public herbaria KL, GZu and the private herbarium of the first author. The genus Solenopsora is reported for the first time occurring in Austria. Among the lichenized species Acrocordia conoidea, Caloplaca erodens, Catillaria minuta, Fulgensia pruinosa var. pruinosa, Protoparmeliopsis admontensis, Leucocarpia biatorella, Lecanora leuckertiana, Micarea leprosula, Physcia wainioi, Solenopsora car patica, Toninia philippea, Verrucaria fuscoatroides and Verrucaria mimicrans represent new records for the province of Carinthia, as well as the non-lichenized ascomycete Naetrocymbe fraxini. In addition, Solenopsora carpatica and Verrucaria schindleri are new to the province of styria and Thelotrema suecicum to Lower Austria, respectively.
30378Repetzky W. (1994): Flechten-Artenliste – Sardinien 1988. Nachtrag. - Carinthia II, 184/104: 309–314.
Italy; Sardinia. List of lichens from excursion
30377Drescher A., Theiss M., Hafellner J. & Berg C. (2007): Die Vegetationsverhältnisse des Großen Kars der Koralpe (Kärnten, Österreich). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 136: 187–238.
The vegetation of the cirque “Großes Kar” on the Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria). – During the summer 1997, the vegetation cover of the nature reserve “Koralm-Kar” (Carinthian part of Koralpe) has been investigated using the Braun-Blanquet-approach. Based on a classification of 141 relevées, 19 different associations of the classes Montio-Cardaminetea, Salicetea herbaceae, Caricetea curvulae, Seslerietea albicantis, Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea, Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae, Mulgedio-Aconitetea and Vaccinio-Piceetea have been distinguished. The correlation between the attributes of the associations (physiognomy, floristic composition, species diversity, distribution within the mapped area, human impact) and several site factors, e.g., soil properties, content of calcium, inclination and exposition of the stands, duration of the snow cover as well as problems of vegetation dynamics are discussed. Finally, the vulnerability and the possibilities of nature conservation in the whole area are discussed. The distribution of 16 mapping units (partly mosaic types) is presented in a vegetation map at a scale of 1 : 10.000.
30376Hafellner J. & Bilovitz P.O. (2011): Tag der Artenvielfalt - Flechten und lichenicole Pilze im Botanischen Garten Graz. - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 141: 185–191.
Biodiversity Day – Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the Botanical Garden Graz. – One day of field work in the botanical garden of the Karl-Franzens-University Graz on occasion of a biodiversity day and consecutive laboratory work yielded 54 species of lichenized and 6 species of lichenicolous fungi. Notable records for the town area include Anisomeridium polypori, Pseudosagedia aenea and Hyperphyscia adglutinata, as well as Tubeufia heterodermiae.
30375Wilfling A. & Hafellner J. (2010): Zur Diversität der Flechten und lichenicolen Pilze auf Böden über Marmor in den Hochlagen der Ostalpen (Österreich). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 140: 85–120.
Diversity of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi on soils on marble at high elevation in the Eastern Alps (Austria). – The local diversity of terricolous lichens (on soil, bryophytes and plant debris) on marble has been investigated at 69 localities in the Eastern Alps. Altogether 178 taxa of lichenized fungi and 39 species of lichenicolous fungi have been identified. Lichen diversity and species compostion on marble at high altitude are similar to those on Mesozoic limestone (e.g. in the Northern Limestone Alps). In the Eastern Alps lichens on local marble outcrops increase substancially the lichen diversity on a regional scale but have little influence on the total diversity on larger scales (e.g. entire province or on a national level) as surveys on these scales will normally also include parts of the bordering Limestone Alps. The distribution patterns of many lichen species change considerably when data from central alpine marble outcrops are included. Polyblastia bryophilopsis, Dactylospora dubia, Lichenochora constrictella, and Pezizella epithallina are recorded for the first time in the province of Styria.
30374Hafellner J. (2009): Zur Flechtendiversität im Natura 2000-Schutzgebiet Raabklamm (Österreich, Steiermark). - Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 139: 83–126.
Lichen diversity in the Natura 2000 conservation area Raabklamm (Austria, Styria). – In the nature conservation area „Raabklamm“ in Styria at a number of temporary plots with special emphasis on sites that could be assigned to habitat types listed in annex I to the European Union “Council directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora” the local diversity of lichenized fungi and their lichenicolous fungi has been investigated. A total of 266 lichenized taxa and 41 taxa of lichenicolous fungi have been identified so far, including 57 species listed in the “Red List of End angered Lichens in Austria”. Of special interest are the low elevation rocky sites partly representing “habitat types with conservation priority”. Field work yielded also the presence of further habitat types listed in Annex 1 to the EU directive but not mentioned in the provincial legal ordinance. Lichenochora aipoliae is reported from the European countries Austria, Finland and Sweden, furthermore from Asia (Afghanistan) and North America (Canada). Arthonia coronata, Tremella candelariellae and Tubeufia heterodermiae are reported as new to Austria. At two localities populations of Placocarpus schaererei thought to be extinct in Styria could be found again. Merismatium peregrinum represents a new record for Styria.
30373Lõhmus A., Lõhmus P. & Runnel K. (2018): A simple survey protocol for assessing terrestrial biodiversity in a broad range of ecosystems. - PLoS ONE, 13(12):e0208535 [24 p.].
Finding standard cost-effective methods for monitoring biodiversity is challenging due to trade-offs between survey costs (including expertise), specificity, and range of applicability. These trade-offs cause a lack of comparability among datasets collected by ecologists and conservationists, which is most regrettable in taxonomically demanding work on megadiverse inconspicuous taxon groups. We have developed a site-scale survey method for diverse sessile land organisms, which can be analyzed over multiple scales and linked with ecological insights and management. The core idea is that field experts can effectively allocate observation effort when the time, area, and priority sequence of tasks are fixed. We present the protocol, explain its specifications (taxon group; expert qualification; plot size; effort) and applications based on>800 original surveys of four taxon groups; and we analyze its effectiveness using data on polypores in hemiboreal and tropical forests. We demonstrate consistent effort-species richness curves and among-survey variation in contrasting ecosystems, and high effectiveness compared with casual observations both at local and regional scales. Bias related to observer experience appeared negligible compared with typical assemblage variation. Being flexible in terms of sampling design, the method has enabled us to compile data from various projects to assess conservation status and habitat requirements of most species (specifically rarities and including discovery of new species); also, when linked with site descriptions, to complete environmental assessments and select indicator species for management. We conclude that simple rules can significantly improve expert-based biodiversity surveys. Ideally, define (i) a common plot size that addresses multiple taxon groups and management goals; (ii) taxon groups based on field expertise and feasible number of species; (iii) sufficient and practical search time; (iv) a procedure for recording within-plot heterogeneity. Such a framework, combined with freedom to allocate effort on-site, helps utilizing full expertise of observers without losing technical rigor.
30372Weise R. (1937): Betrachtungen über die Bedeutung des Thallusmantels und der Flechtensäuren für den Artbegriff in der Gattung Cladonia. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 55: 92–104.
30371Mattick F. (1954): Lichenologische Notizen. 6. Die Entwicklung der Lichenologie, besonders seit 1870. 7. Die Flechten der Tropen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 67: 133–145.
30370Tobler F. (1931): Der Fall des Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Wainio. Ein Beitrag zur Stoffwechselphysiologie der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 49: 158–166.
30369Tobler F. (1928): Zur Kenntnis der Flechtensymbiose und ihrer Entwicklung. I. Beobachtungen und Versuche an Baeomyces roseus. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 46: 220–234.
30368Tobler F. (1925): Zur Physiologie der Farbunterschiede bei Xanthoria. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 43: 301–305.
30367Tobler F. (1953): Ernährungsphysiologie der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 66: 429–432.
30366Tobler F. (1909): Wilhelm Zopf. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 27: (58)–(72).
Obituary; biography; bibliography
30365Zopf W. (1905): Biologische und morphologische Beobachtungen an Flechten. I. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 23: 497–504.
30364Totaler F. (1909): Das physiologische Gleichqewicht von Pilz und Alge in den Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 27: 421–427.
30363Ullrich J. (1955): Beobachtungen über die vegetative Verbreitung der Cladonien durch Thallusfragmente. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 67: 391–394.
30362Seitz W. (1977): Alwin Schade. 1881-1976. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 90: 501–506.
Obituary
30361Bachmann E. (1933): Der Lagerbau von Mikroglaena butschetschensis Zschacke. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 51: 268–273.
30360Bachmann E. (1934): Scheingallen auf Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 52: 80–86.
30359Bachmann E. (1934): Ein Hexenbesen auf einer Flechte. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 52: 291–295.
30358Bachmann E. (1886): Botanisch-chemische Untersuchungen über Pilzfarbstoffe. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 4: 68–72.
30357Bachmann E. (1887): Emodin in Nephoroma [sic!] lusitanica. Ein Beitrag zur Chemie der Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 5: 192–194.
Nephroma lusitanicum; anthraquinones
30356Bachmann E. (1915): Kalklösende Algen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 33: 45–57.
"Die Algenkalke sind poröser als die Flechtenkalke; die Luftalgen sind demnach bessere Kalklöser als die Flechten".
30355Bachmann E. (1904): Zur Frage des Vorkommens von ölführenden Sphäroidzellen bei Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22: 44–46.
30354Bachmann E. (1926): Hyphae amyloideae bei einigen Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 44: 201–207.
30353Bachmann E. (1927): Zur Gonidienvermehrung bei Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 45: 308–314.
30352Bachmann E. (1937): Das Lager athalliner Flechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 55: 59–66.
30351Bachmann E. (1892): Der Thallus der Kalkflechten. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 10: 30–37.
30350Bachmann E. (1904): Die Beziehungen der Kieselflechten zu ihrem Substrat. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 22: 101–104.
30349Bachmann E. (1928): Die Beziehungen der Knochenflechten zu ihrer Unterlage. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 46: 291–297.
30348Pitschmann H. (1980): H.Gams. 1893-1976. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 93: 673–675.
Obituary
30347Steiner M. (1955): Ein stabiles Diaminreagens für lichenologische Zwecke. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 68: 35–40.
Durch Zusatz von 10% Natriumsulfit zu einer 1%° igen wäßrigen Lösung von p‐Phenylendiamin wird ein Reagens erhalten, das in der Reaktionsfähigkeit mit Flechtenstoffen der bisher verwendeten alkoholischen Diaminlösung ebenbürtig ist, diesem gegenüber aber durch die mindestens mehrere Monate währende Haltbarkeit Vorteile bietet. Das Eindringen in den Flechtenthallus wird durch Zusatz von kleinen Mengen eines Netzmittels (z. B. “Pril”) beschleunigt. Es wird über gute Erfahrungen mit dem modifizierten Reagens berichtet.
30346Seitz W. (1979): Chemosystematik heute — dargestellt an einigen Beispielen aus den Angiospermenfamilien Ranunculaceae, Onagraceae, Valerianaceae sowie der Gruppe Lichenes. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 92: 519–534.
Chemosystematology today — a survey represented by some examples of the angiosperm's families Ranunculaceae, Onagraceae and Valerianaceae as well as from the group of lichens. Also in families with a more primitive level of evolution from the group of the "lower plants" there are significant chemical differences, for instance in the related lichen species Lecanora varia (Ehrh.) Ach. and L. conizaeoides Nyl. ex Cromb. (Lecanoraceae) which mainly possess psoromic acid respectively fumarprotocetraric acid and protocetraric acid.
30345Seitz W. (1972): Flechtenwuchs und Luftverunreinigung im Großraum von Saarbrücken. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 85: 239–247.
Growth of lichens and air pollution in the area of Saarbrücken. 1. Beside 20 saxicolous and earthy lichens 30 species of lichens growing on tree bark were identified in the town of Saarbrücken. The corticolous lichens Pertusaria coccodes, P. henrici, Rhinodina pyrina and Lepraria candelaris as well as the "sulphurous lichen" Lecidea lucida were found in the Saarland for the first time. 2. In the explored area there is a desert of lichens (zone V) which is 18 km long and about 4 km wide. Next comes an inner fighting zone where the crustose species Lecanora conizaeoides and Lepraria aeruginosa are dominating. An almost undisturbed epiphytic growth of lichens (zone III to I) is restricted only to a few small refuges mostly of the tops of the surrounding hills. 3. The foliose lichens Parmelia saxätilis and P. subrudecta which were growing well developed in some places of the urban area turned out to be remarkably resistent against SO2. The otherwise frequent Hypogymnia physodes could be found only in poor initial stages. 4. The frontier of the desert of lichens is correlating with a middle SO, air pollution of 0.06 to 0.09 mg SO2/m3. After having examined the epiphytic vegetation these physically measured values, however, compared with those of other cities are supposed to be quite higher.
30344Mattick F. (1951): Alte und neue Probleme der Lichenologie. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 93–107.
30343Bornkamm R. (1958): Die Bunte‐Erdflechten‐Gesellschaft im südwestlichen Harzvorland. Ein Beitrag zur floristischen Soziologie von Kryptogamengesellschaften. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 71: 253–270.
1. Im Gebiet zwischen Werra, Leine und südwestlichem Harzvorland wurde die Bunte‐Erdflechten‐Gesellschaft (Fulgensietum fulgentis Gams 1938) an vielen Stellen neu aufgefunden und soziologisch aufgenommen. Es fand sich eine “Gipsausbildung” auf Zechsteingips und ‐dolomit und eine “Kalkausbildung” auf Unterem Muschelkalk und Mittlerem Keuper. 2. An Hand von 49 sehr kleinen Aufnahmeflächen wurden folgende Abwandlungen der Gesellschaft unterschieden: I. Typische Subass.; II Preissia‐Subass., die mit der Typischen, besonders aber mit der Solorina‐Var. zur Solorina‐Distichum‐Ass. Reimers 1940 überleitet; III. Peltigera‐Subass., die mit der Encalypta‐Var., besonders aber der Cladonia symphycarpia‐Var. zum Cladonietum symphycarpiae überleitet. Letzteres ist im ganzen Untersuchungsgebiet in der Toninia‐Var., auf den Keuperhügeln bei Friedland in der Cladonia endiviaefolia‐Var. anzutreffen. 3. Im typischen Fulgensietum herrscht die Placodium‐Lebensform vor, im Cladonietum symphycarpiae nehmen Moose und die Cladonia pyxidata‐Form überhand. In beiden Gesellschaften dominieren weitverbreitete Arten, deren Areal auch von Natur aus waldfreie Gebiete (Steppen, Halbwüsten und Tundren) umfaßt. 4. Das Fulgensietum fulgentis füllt eine Lücke der Vegetation aus, die von anderen Gesellschaften nicht geschlossen werden kann. Daher sollte es als selbständige Assoziation betrachtet werden.
30342Reimers H. (1950): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Bunten Erdflechten‐Gesellschaft. I. Zur Systematik und Verbreitung der Charakterflechten der Gesellschaft besonders im Harzvorland. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 63: 148–157.
30341Reimers H. (1951): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Bunten Erdflechten-Gesellschaft. II. Allgemeine Fragen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 64: 36–50.
30340Mattick F. (1952): Steinringbildung und Pflanzenwachstum auf Spitzbergen. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 65: 40–45.
1. In der Königsbucht, Spitzbergen, wurden erstmalig vegetationsbedeckte Steinringböden nach Verlauf einer Reihe von Jahren wieder untersucht und fotografiert. 2. Der Vergleich der Bilder zeigt, daß eine weitere Aussortierung des Gesteinsmaterials nach 13 Jahren nicht festzustellen ist. 3. Die Vegetation der Steinringe, aus Strauchflechten‐ und Zwergstrauchpolstern bestehend, hat in dieser Zeit ein äußerst geringes Wachstum zu verzeichnen. Neue Pflanzenpolster haben sich überhaupt nicht gebildet. 4. Der Zustand der Vegetation zeigt, daß die Bildung der Steinringe schon seit vielen Jahrzehnten abgeschlossen sein muß, andrerseits aber auch noch nicht so lange zurückliegt, daß das Gebiet völlig von der Pflanzen‐ decke überzogen worden wäre. 5. Die Betrachtung der mikroklimatischen Verhältnisse läßt annehmen, daß die Bodenstrukturen nach dem Rückzug der Gletscher auf dem eisfrei gewordenen Gelände verhältnismäßig schnell entstehen, nach vollzogener Sortierung dann aber unverändert liegenbleiben und langsam von der Vegetation in konzentrischen Ringen ausgekleidet werden, wobei sich auf den größeren Steinen des Ringwalles Krustenflechten, auf dem Kleinschotter innerhalb (und eventuell auch außerhalb) des Ringes Strauchflechten und auf dem Lehmboden des Inneren Erdkrustenflechten ansiedel.
30339Mattick F. (1940): Die Erdflechten Lecanora (Sect. Placodium) crassa (Huds.) Ach. und L. lentigera (Web.) Ach.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 58: 346–353.
Squamarina
30338Follmann G. (1965): Eine epipetrische Flechtengesellschaft der zentralchilenischen Hochkordillere mit kennzeichnendem Neuropogon acromelanus (Stirt.) Lamb. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 78: 247–260.
1. Es wird eine unabhängige Pionierflechtengesellschaft der zentralchilenischen Hochkordillere als Neuropogonetum acromelani nov. ass. (Umbilicarion cylindricae Frey, Rhizocarpetalia geographici Klem., Epipetretea lichenosa Klem.) beschrieben. 2. Die biologischen, floristischen, geographischen, ökologischen, soziologischen und systematischen Eigenarten der Gebirgsflechtengesellschaft werden herausgestellt. 3. Die Felsflechtengesellschaft erweist sich als azidophil, photophil und xerophytisch sowie weitgehend anemophil und chionophob. 4. 30% der Gesellschaftsbildner sind als Endemiten des südandinen Raumes anzusprechen; 78 % stellen Neufunde für das Untersuchungsgebiet dar.
30337Follmann G. (1962): Eine dornbewohnende Flechtengesellschaft der nordchilenischen Sukkulentenformationen mit kennzeichnender Anaptychia intricata (Desf.) Mass.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 74: 495–510.
1. Eine als Anaptychietum intricatae nov. ass. (Teloschistidion chrysophthalmi Follm., Epixyletalia lichenosa Klem.) beschriebene selbständige Bartflechtengesellschaft besiedelt die Dornsträucher und Sukkulenten der küstennahen nordchilenischen Lomaformationen. 2. Die artenreiche, hochgradig aerohygrophile, photophile, azido‐, halo- und nitrophile Epiphytengesellschaft läßt die Subassoziationen collinum nov. subass. mit Roccellina condensata Darb, und Lecanora coquimbensis Zahlbr. und marinum nov. subass. mit Darbishirella gracillima (Darb.) Zahlbr. und Usnea dusenii du Rietz erkennen. 3. Die biologischen, floristischen, geographischen, ökologischen, soziologischen und systematischen Eigenarten der unter extremen Bedingungen bei hoher Isoliertheit vorkommenden Lomaflechtenassoziation werden herausgestellt (Flechtenkoeffizient 1,3). 4. Anaptychia intricata (Desf.) Mass., Pannoparmelia anzioides Darb., Usnea dusenii du Rietz und Xantboria candelaria (L.) Kickx. f. substelliformis Hillm. sind Neufunde im Untersuchungsgebiet.
30336Follmann G. (1961): Eine dornbewohnende Flechtengesellschaft der zentralchilenischen Sukkulentenformationen mit kennzeichnender Chrysothrix noli-tangere Mont.. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 73: 449–462.
Es wird eine dornbesiedelnde, photophile, aerophile sowie nitrophile Flechtengesellschaft der dornstrauchreichen Sukkulentenformationen im küstennahen Zentralchile als Chrysotrichetum nolitangere nov. ass. (Teloschistidion chrysophthalmi nov. ass., Epixyletalia lichenosa Klem., Epiphytetea lichenosa Klem.) mit den ozeanischen bzw. kontinentalen Subassoziationen pacificum nov. subass. (Standortsvarianten darbishirelletosum gracillimae nov. soc., roccellinetosum condensatae nov. soc.) und montanum nov. subass. (Standortsvarianten usneetosum chilensis nov. soc., caloplacetosum pergracilis nov. soc.) im Hinblick auf die allgemeine Vegetationsgliederung des Gebiets sowie die besonderen Zeigereigenschaften der Vereine beschrieben.
30335Bachmann E. (1925): Isidienbildung bei Cladonia. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 43: 39–42.
30334Daniëls F.J.A., Hansen E.S. & Sipman H.J.M. (1985): New records of terricolous microlichens from southeast Greenland. - Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 34(1): 49–58.
Twelve species of terricolous microlichens from the Angmagssalik District, Southeast Greenland, are reported: Caloplaca friesii, C. livida, Lecanora boligera, Lecidea oligotropha and Leciophysma arctophila, which are new to the lichen flora of Greenland, Rinodina conradi, which is new to the eastcoast, and Baeomyces roseus, B. rufus, Buellia geophila, B. punctata, Caloplaca tornoensis and Mycoblastus tornoensis, new to Southeast Greenland. In a discussion of the greenlandic distribution, unpublished records from the herbarium of Copenhagen (C) are incorporated. Notes on the habitats are given and the pertinent phytosociological units indicated. Some morphological and anatomical characters are commented upon briefly.
30333Champion R.H. (1971): Atopic sensitivity to algae and lichens. - British Journal of Dermatology, 85(6): 551–557.
Six cases of allergic reactions to green algae are recorded. Five patients had atopic dermatitis in which exacerbations were provoked both by inhalation and by direct contact with algae. These patients also reacted to lichens, which contain algae in symbiosis with fungi. Five of the patients had allergic rhinitis or asthma, often very mild in relation to the severity of the skin symptoms. Three of the patients also had a delayed hypersensitivity contact dermatitis from lichens, but not from algae. It is important to investigate patients with suspected sensitivities to lichens and algae both by patch testing and by prick testing as specific desensitization may help those patients with immediate weal reactions.
30332Szewczyk W., Kwaśna H. & Behnke-Borowczyk J. (2017): Fungi inhabiting knotwood of Pinus sylvestris infected by Porodaedalea pini. - Journal of Phytopathology, 165: 500–507.
Abundance and diversity of fungi in naturally formed knots of Pinus sylvestris affected by Porodaedalea pini were investigated. Samples were taken from trees that were (i) affected, with internal heartwood decay and no conks, (ii) affected, with internal heartwood decay and conks and (iii) controls. The Illumina sequencing technology was used for amplification of DNA, sequencing and analysis. In total, 566,279 raw sequences were obtained from six samples. Sequences included 74% of culturable and 8.4% of non-culturable fungi and 17.6% of organisms with no reference sequences in NCBI. Abundance of organisms in knotwood, measured as number of OTUs, ranged from 36,272 (29,506 for fungi) to 178,535 (177,484 for fungi) and differed significantly between two trees in a stand and between stands. The highest and lowest average number of fungal OTUs occurred in infected trees with no conks and in trees with conks, respectively. Number of taxa ranged from 171 to 415 and often differed significantly between two trees in one stand and between stands. Greatest diversity occurred in control trees. The number of fungal taxa shared by two trees in one stand was 67–152 and that shared by two stands was 51–141. The majority of fungi were Ascomycota. Those most common in pines affected by P. pini were Coniochaeta hoffmannii and C. fodinicola (19.65%–59.92%). Infundichalara microchona, Leotiomycetes spp. and Rhinocladiella atrovirens were also present. Another common species, Lecanora conizaeoides, occurred most often in control trees (0.30%–8.82%). Porodaedalea pini was detected only sporadically. Non-culturable fungi were most frequent in the control trees. The greater average abundance and smaller average diversity of fungi in knots of trees infected by P. pini suggest that the pathogen successfully competes with some fungal species and does not inhibit the growth of survivors. Some fungi detected may contribute to production of natural biocides. Keywords: fungi, knotwood, Pinus sylvestris, Porodaedalea pini.
30331Schofield E. & Ahmadjian V. (1972): Field observations and laboratory studies of some Antarctic cold desert cryptogams. - In: Llano G.A. (ed.), Antarctic Terrestrial Biology. Antarctic Research Series Vol. 20, p. 97–142, American Geophysical Union, Washington.
Field observations and laboratory studies suggest that the type of nitrogen compounds and the concentration of water‐soluble salts determine the distribution of macroscopic terrestrial cryptogams (algae, mosses, and lichens) in continental Antarctica. In laboratory experiments the isolated mycobiont of Lecanora tephroeceta Hue, a ‘nitrophilous’︁ lichen collected in a snow petrel rookery in West Antarctica, grew best in pure culture on reduced nitrogen compounds, particularly on ammonia and ammonia‐yielding compounds. Uric acid, xanthine, urea, three amino acids with nonpolar side chains (proline, alanine, and leucine), and two amino acid amides (asparagine and glutamine) in addition to organic and inorganic ammonium salts sustained significant growth, whereas ribosides, pyrimidines, peptides, allantoin, and nitrates did not. The mycobiont hydrolyzed urea in a test medium and probably deamidated the two amides before absorbing their nitrogen as ammonia. The observed pattern of nitrogen source use suggests that neutral molecules are absorbed much more readily than charged molecules; this pattern is an important attribute for an organism growing in saline habitats. The distribution of L. tephroeceta, as determined from all available information on previous collections, indicates that the important determining factor is ornithogenic nitrogen in the environment. In related experiments Prasiola crispa (a green alga long known from its association with bird rookeries to be a highly ornithocoprophilic species) grew twice as well in unialgal culture on uric acid as on any other nitrogen source tested. A blue‐green alga often associated with P. crispa, ‘Phormidium autumnale,’︁ appears from herbarium studies to have a distribution pattern that is also correlated with the presence of ornithogenic nitrogen. A moss (Bryum algens), on the other hand, grew well in pure culture on all nitrogen compounds supplied; thus its distribution is probably not limited by the availability of any particular class of nitrogenous compounds. Two lichen algae (Trebouxia spp.) grew best on a peptide (peptone) but hardly used ammonium. They also did not use urea and nitrates. All the lichen phycobionts were typical obligate psychrophiles, their temperature optimums being near 15°C and their maximums near 20°C. The two mycobionts tested displayed two separate temperature optimums under certain conditions, one below 10°C and one above 10°C. This result may indicate that the species evolved in a warmer climate than that of present‐day Antarctica. The growth responses of the lichen symbionts to pH, light, and osmotic conditions were also examined in the laboratory, and the concentration of reduced nitrogen in soil, guano, and plant samples was determined. The soluble salt concentration in soils was found to be a critical determinant of plant distribution in addition to the type of nitrogen compounds. At Cape Royds, Ross Island, the potentially promotive influence on lichen and moss growth of reduced nitrogen was apparently negated by toxic salt levels. Ammonia was considered to be an ideal source of nitrogen for plants in the saline cold deserts of continental Antarctica.
30330Zhurbenko M.P. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Contributions to the knowledge of lichenicolous fungi on Thamnolia. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 368–373.
Capronia thamnoliae, Cercidospora thamnoliae and Cercidospora thamnoliicola are reported new to Japan; Endococcus thamnoliae new to Papua New Guinea; Merismatium thamnoliicola new to Norway; Polycoccum vermicularium new to Argentina, Australia, Colombia, Japan, Nepal and Papua New Guinea; Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae var. taimyricum new to Nepal; S. thamnoliae var. thamnoliae new to Australia, Falkland Islands, Japan and Papua New Guinea; Sphaeropezia santessonii new to Japan; Stigmidium frigidum new to Japan; Thamnogalla crombiei new to Australia, Bhutan, India, Japan, Nepal, North Korea and Papua New Guinea. Cornutispora ciliata is newly reported from Thamnolia. Material of Polycoccum vermicularium is shown to be morphologically heterogeneous. Keywords. – Biodiversity, biogeography, lichenicolous mycobiota.
30329Tripp E.A., Agabani R. & McMullin R.T. (2018): New and noteworthy reports of Colorado lichens and lichen allies, 1: Phaeocalicium polyporaeum. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 362–367.
Phaeocalicium polyporaeum is reported from Colorado for the first time, based on a specimen collected by the first two authors, in 2018, from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This individual was growing on Trichaptum abietinum and furthermore represents the first record of P. polyporaeum in western North American in over 30 years. We provide discussion on its geographical range as presently understood, along with other notes of interest. Keywords. – biogeography, Colorado, distribution, lichen, rediscovery, record, report, range extension.
30328Hansen C.J. (2018): A preliminary lichen checklist of the Redstone Arsenal, Madison County, Alabama. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 351–361.
Lichens were surveyed across nine ecologically sensitive areas of the U.S. Army’s Redstone Arsenal in Madison County, Alabama. From a total of 464 collections, 151 species in 64 genera were identified, including 12 state records and three new species currently being described. Prior to this study, only eight lichen species had been documented from the Redstone Arsenal and less than 40 were known from Madison County. Newly reported lichens for Alabama include Caloplaca pollinii, Clauzadea chondrodes, Enchylium coccophorum, Hypotrachyna dentella, Lepraria xanthonica, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, Phaeophyscia leana, Physciella chloantha, Physconia leucoleiptes, Physconia subpallida, Punctelia graminicola, and Usnea halei. Results from this study represent the first lichen survey of the Redstone Arsenal and will serve as a baseline for future studies. Keywords. – Lichen biodiversity, North America, northern Alabama, southern Highland Rim, Tennessee Valley, United States.
30327Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2018): Two new calciphytes from Western North America, Acarospora brucei and Acarospora erratica (Acarosporaceae). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 342–350.
Two new species that grow on calcareous rock, Acarospora brucei and A. erratica, are described from North America. Acarospora brucei was originally reported as A. complanata. It is proposed that the name A. complanata be removed from the North American lichen checklist. Sixtyfour species of Acarospora and 99 species of Acarosporaceae are currently reported in North America. A protocol for reproducible iodine tests of hymenial and subhymenial substances in Acarosporaceae is provided. Keywords. – Acarospora sparsa, Lugol’s, Mexico, nomenclature, taxonomy.
30326McMullin R.T. & Sharp L. (2018): Lichens of Canada Exsiccati, Fascicle I, Nos. 1-25. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 335–341.
A new exsiccati is initiated, Lichens of Canada, disseminated by the National Herbarium of Canada (CANL) at the Canadian Museum of Nature. Thirty-one sets of 25 species from the Hudson Bay Lowlands in northern Ontario and Salt Spring Island in British Columbia are distributed to: B, BG, C, CANB, COLO, DUKE, E, EWU, FH, FR, GZU, H, HMAS, KANU, LD, M, MSC, NBM, NFLD, NY, O, OSU, PMAE, QFA, S, SWSG, TNS, TU, UBC, UPS, WIS. Keywords. – Biodiversity, fungi, lichenology, mycology, natural history collections, scheda.
30325Knudsen K., Kocourková J. & Wheeler T. (2018): Neotypfication [sic!] of Sarcogyne integra (Acarosporaceae). - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 330–334.
The holotype of Sarcogyne integra was lost during World War II. A revised description of the species is provided, and a neotype is designated from material collected in Montana, U.S.A. Keywords. – Brouard, calciphiles, calciphytes, New Mexico, taxonomy.
30324Konoreva L., Chesnokov S., Stepanchikova I., Frolov I., Gagarina L. & Tchabanenko S. (2018): Discovery of Coenogonium isidiatum (Coenogoniaceae, Ostropomycetidae) disjunct in northeastern Asia. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 322–329.
Coenogonium isidiatum is reported new to Russia from the Far East, constituting a considerable northern range extension for the species. Morphology, ecology and distribution of the species are discussed. Molecular data (mrSSU and nrITS DNA sequences) were obtained from the material and phylogenetic analyses recovered these as a strongly supported and monophyletic with respect to other sequenced Coenogonium species. Keywords. – Biogeography, distribution, isidia, Kurile Islands, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, sterile crustose lichens.
30323Perlmutter G.B. & Rivas Plata E. (2018): New combinations and notes on Buellia and Rostania. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 319–321.
Buellia pleiotera is here noted as the correct name for of B.”pleiotropa”. New combinations are proposed for Hafellia fosteri and Collema occultum var. populinum to further complete the taxonomic transfers to Buellia and Rostania, respectively. Keywords. – Nomenclature, Caliciaceae, Collemataceae.
30322Villella J., Carlberg T., Stone D.F., Miller J.E., Nelson N. & Calabria L.M. (2018): Diversity and floristic patterns of epiphytic macrolichens on white oak in the Klamath-Siskiyou region. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 299–318.
White oak (Quercus garryana) plant communities are one of the most threatened habitat types in the Pacific Northwest, and often host diverse and characteristic epiphyte communities. In order to better understand the diversity and floristic patterns of epiphytic macrolichens of these habitats in the Klamath-Siskiyou region we studied lichen communities in 52 plots within the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument (CSNM). We report a rich flora of 96 species of epiphytes on Quercus garryana. Macrolichen species richness in the plots ranged between 12 and 49 species with an average of 24.7 species per plot. The most species-rich genera in descending order were: Usnea, Physconia, Physcia, Hypogymnia, Melanohalea, Peltigera, Bryoria, Lobaria and Scytinium. We found three rare species that are listed by the Oregon Biodiversity Information Center: Hypotrachyna revoluta (S3-vulnerable), Collema curtisporum (S1-critically imperiled), and Rostania quadrifida (S2-imperiled). Placidium fingens was recorded for the first time as an epiphyte in Oregon. We observed floristic patterns that indicate a mix of lichens from six distinct geographic floristic groups. Of these, the California Madrean floristic group had the fewest representative species but nonetheless included a number of species rare in Oregon such as Melanelixia californica, Physconia californica and P. fallax. We discuss how these new findings influence our current knowledge of oak lichen communities and dispersal corridors within the Klamath-Siskiyou region. Keywords. – California flora, biogeography, biodiversity, Siskiyou crest, woodlands, land bridge, Klamath River.
30321Kocourková J. & Knudsen K. (2018): Stigmidium rouxianum (Mycosphaerellaceae, Dothideomycetes), reported new for North America and California. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 293–298.
Stigmidium rouxianum is a member of the S. psorae group with 1-septate hyaline ascospores, a net of interascal filaments, and an absence of periphysoids. Stigmidium rouxianum was described from Europe where it has been reported growing on Acarospora cervina. In North America it was collected in California on A. obpallens. Keywords. – Channel Islands, Joshua Tree National Park, lichenicolous fungi, Stigmidium fuscatae.
30320McMullin R.T. (2018): New and interesting lichens and allied fungi from British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec, Canada. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 275–292.
Ongoing biogeographical and ecological studies of lichens and allied fungi in Canada have resulted in range extensions throughout the country that are documented here. Four species are reported new to the Territory of Nunavut: Acarospora schleicheri, Buellia ocellata, Melanelixia subaurifera, and Rhizocarpon lecanorinum. New records are reported for five provinces: British Columbia (Microcalicium conversum, Umbilicaria arctica), Nova Scotia (Arthonia hypobela, A. vinosa, Micarea misella, and Sarea difformis), Ontario (Lecanora carpinea, Microcalicium conversum, Sphaerophorous fragilis, and Umbilicaria phaea var. phaea), Prince Edward Island (Ropalospora viridis), and Quebec (Candelariella lutella, Microcalicium arenarium, and Sclerophora peronella). New records representing major range extensions are reported for: Psora globifera, S. peronella, and Xanthomendoza weberi. Pilophorus fibula is also reinstated to the Ontario lichen list. Keywords. – Biogeography, Canadian biodiversity, species at risk, calicioids.
30319Lendemer J.C. & Brodo I.M. (2018): Studies in lichens and lichenicolous fungi – No. 21: Notes on Lambiella caeca and L. fuscosora. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 269–274.
Lambiella caeca is reported from the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America (Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina) extending its range considerably. The recent report of Lambiella fuscosora from North America is shown to belong to Japewiella dollypartoniana, which is a new record for Canada and Ontario both for the species and the genus. Keywords. – Eagle Hill, Lecidea, norstictic acid, Rimularia, sterile lichens, Trapeliaceae.
30318Esslinger T.L. (2018): A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada, Version 22. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 6–268.
Version 22 of the checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in North America north of Mexico is presented. It includes a total of 5,561 species in 755 genera, with an additional 41 subspecies, 44 varieties, and 3 forms. The total species number includes 615 licheniclous fungi, 107 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi, and another 53 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status. Keywords. – Canada, floristics, lichens, nomenclature, United States.
30317Tønsberg T. (2018): Varicellaria lactea new to the U.S.A. from Alaska. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 1–5.
Varicellaria lactea is reported new to the U.S.A. from Katmai National Park and Preserve and Lake Clark National Park, both in Alaska. It was found on slightly overhanging rock walls on lake shores. The specimens agree well morphologically and chemically with material from Scandinavia (Norway) used for comparison. Keywords. – Crustose lichens, soralia, range extension, Lepra.
30316Tsurykau A. (2018): A provisional checklist of the lichens of Belarus. - Opuscula Philolichenum, 17: 374–479.
A total of 606 species and five subspecific taxa of lichens and allied fungi are documented from Belarus based on combined historical (pre-1980) and modern (post-1980) records. Of these, 50 (8.3%) are represented by only historical reports, 235 (38.8%) are represented by only modern vouchers, and 310 (51.2%) are represented by both historical and modern records. Eleven species are known only from generalized published reports that lacked specific location data. Eighty-eight species are excluded as erroneous reports, or considered as doubtful records. Keywords. – Biodiversity, distribution, lichenized fungi, historical baseline.
30315Lendemer J.C. (2018): Recent literature on lichens—251. - Bryologist, 121(4): 607–615.
Bibliography
30314Yazici K. & Aptroot A. (2017): Three lichen taxa new for Turkey. - Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 24(1): 83–89.
Three lichen taxa viz. Aspicilia asiatica (H. Magn.) Yoshim., Lecanora subcarnea (Sw.) Ach. var. soralifera H. Magn., and Thelidium minutulum Körb. were identified as new to Turkey as a result of a lichenological survey in the Bitlis and Mu? regions Turkey. In addition, Lecanora subcarnea var. soralifera is also new to Asia. A detail taxonomic account, notes on known distribution, substrates, and chemistry under each taxon and comparisons with morphologically similar taxa are furnished under each taxon. Keywords: Ascolichen; Lecanoraceae; Hymenchiaaceae; Verrucariaceae.
30313Singh P., Jagadeesh Ram T.A.M. & Singh K.P. (2017): A new species of Leiorreuma (Ascomycota, Ostropales) from Great Nicobar Island, India. - Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 24(1): 9–12.
Leiorreuma nicobarense Pushpi Singh, Jagadeesh and Kr. P. Singh, a new species from Great Nicobar Island, India is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its sessile lirellae with widely exposed densely whitish pruinose disc, inspersed hymenium, 8-spored asci with 6-locular ascospores and presence of stictic, constictic and hypostictic acids. Key to species occurring in India is provided. Keywords: Ascomycota; Lichenized fungi; New species; Taxonomy; Sundaland.
30312Hardini J., Kasiamdari R.S., Santosa [S.] & Purnomo [P.] (2018): A new species of Glyphis Ach. and three new records of Graphis Adans. (Graphidaceae) from Bali Island, Indonesia. - Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 25(2): 159–166.
Glyphis batuana Hardini, Kasiamdari & Purnomo sp. nov. is a new species of lichenized fungus found on the bark of the Frangipani tree (Plumeria sp.). The new species from Batuan village (Gianyar districts), Bali Island, Indonesia is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its lirelliform, unbranched ascomata, entire labia, black, open disc with brown pruina, completely carbonized excipulum, 8-spored asci with 8-10 locular ascospores, and lack of secondary substances. A key to species of Glyphis Ach. in Indonesia is provided. Three new records of Graphis Adans., namely G. conferta Zenker, G. immersella Müll. Arg. and G. nilgiriensis Adaw. & Makhija are also reported.
30311Konečná E. (2018): Ekologie lišejníků ve vztahu s funkční diverzitou a velikostí genomu [Lichen ecology in the relationship to functional diversity and genome size]. - Bryonora, 62: 72-75.
The relationship between functional traits and diversity is an interesting topic in lichenology. Although it has been addressed by only a few studies, some interesting patterns have already been observed. There are only scant data on the genome size of lichen symbionts, but future studies might reveal a similar ecological pattern as have already been found for other groups of organisms
30310Bouda F., Konečná E., Malíček J., Svoboda D., Uhlík P. & Vondrák J. (2018): Lišejníky zaznamenané během 25. jarního setkání bryologicko-lichenologické sekce ČBS v Horažďovicích v dubnu 2018 [Lichens recorded during the 25th spring meeting of the Bryological and lichenological section of the CBS in Horažďovice, April 2018]. - Bryonora, 62: 40-52.
We present a list of 176 lichenized and three non-lichenized fungi recorded in the Sušice and Horažďovice regions of Southwest Bohemia in April 2018 during the 25th spring meeting of the Bryological and Lichenological Section of the Czech Botanical Society. We focused on limestone and silicate rocks and rocky outcrops occurring in this lichenologically poorly known area. Caloplaca epierodens is new to the Czech Republic and Gyalecta geoica is new to Bohemia. One of two known Czech localities of the cyanolichen Placynthium caesium is located in the area. Several other rare and remarkable species were found in the region, for example Caloplaca erodens, C. limonia, Diplotomma porphyricum, Dirina stenhammarii, Lecania cuprea, Lecanora rouxii, Lepraria diffusa, L. nivalis, Leptogium teretiusculum, Lichinella nigritella, Metamelanea caesiella, Psora decipiens, Rhizocarpon petraeum, Solorina saccata, Toninia aromatica and Verrucaria caerulea
30309Malíček J., Bouda F., Kocourková J., Palice Z. & Peksa O. (2018): Zajímavé nálezy zástupců rodu Lecanora v České republice [Interesting records of Lecanora species in the Czech Republic]. - Bryonora, 62: 24-39.
New records of 24 rare, endangered or overlooked Lecanora species are reported from the Czech Republic. Several of the species are endangered epiphytic lichens (L. allophana, L. glabrata, L. impudens and L. subcarpinea), some are rare or less known, predominantly lignicolous lichens (L. mughicola and L. sarcopidoides), two are typical high-mountain saxicolous species (L. albula and L. bicincta), two others occur on calcareous rocks (L. agardhiana and L. rouxii), and a few names represent rarely reported taxa on siliceous rocks (e.g. L. gisleriana, L. lojkaeana, L. pannonica and L. subcarnea). New Red List categories are suggested for some species.
30308Malíček J. & Vondrák J. (2018): Lišejníky chráněných území Ralsko a Vranovské skály (severní Čechy) [Lichens of the protected areas Ralsko and Vranovské skály (North Bohemia)]. - Bryonora, 62: 1-23.
The diversity of lichenized fungi was explored in two close protected areas, Ralsko and Vranovské skály, during several field excursions in 2017 and 2018. We present a list of 298 species, including 272 recently recorded taxa: 223 species from Ralsko and 137 species from Vranovské skály. The Ralsko Nature Reserve protects ecosystems of tephrite rocks and boulder screes, a castle ruin and old-growth scree woodlands. Rare species are mostly represented by montane epilithic lichens, for example Acarospora insolata, Melanelia panniformis, Fuscidea recensa, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecanora cenisia f. soredians, Ophioparma ventosa, Porpidia cinereoatra, Stereocaulon pileatum, S. vesuvianum var. symphycheileoides, Umbilicaria hyperborea and U. subglabra. Lecidea phaeops and Rinodina teichophila, which are so far known from a single locality in the Czech Republic, were recorded on the screes and in the area of the castle ruin, respectively. The woodlands, which were strongly influenced by acid rain in the past, harboured several typical old-growth forest species such as Bacidia vermifera, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella and Sclerophora peronella. The bedrock of the Vranovské skály Nature Monument is made up of a mixture of acidic and calcareous sandstone rocks. The locality is rich in various crustose microlichens, many of which have only rarely been reported from the Czech Republic. Acrocordia conoidea, Arthonia calcicola, Bacidia arceutina, Bacidina egenula, Caloplaca albolutescens, C. dichroa, C. interfulgens, Diplotomma canescens, Lecania coeruleorubella, L. hutchinsiae, L. sylvestris, Leptogium plicatile and Verrucaria compacta represent the most valuable records. Sixty-one lichen species have been recorded historically, but 24 of them have not been confirmed recently. Most of them are rare epiphytes (Lobaria pulmonaria, Nephroma parile, Peltigera collina and several microlichens) and some are generally non-epiphytic lichens with cyanobacteria in the thallus or in the cephalodia (Peltigera horizontalis, P. polydactylon, Stereocaulon paschale, S. to- mentosum and Vahliella leucophaea). The current absence of these species was most probably caused by the acidification of their substrates by sulphur dioxide air pollution in the 20th century
30307Fałtynowicz W., Winkowska-Grześkowiak A. & Kukwa M. (2018): Materials to the lichen biota of Western Pomerania (northern Poland). Part 2. - Steciana, 22(2): 41–49.
The paper contains a list of 195 lichen species collected in the central part of Western Pomerania (northern Poland). Key words: lichens, Western Pomerania, northern Poland.
30306Kossowska M., Fałtynowicz W., Dimos-Zych M., Fałtynowicz H., Patejuk K., Piegdoń A., Buksakowska M. & Jarema P. (2018): Additions to the lichen biota of the Sudety Mountains. I. Records from the Karkonosze Mountains. - Acta Mycologica, 53(2):1113 [9 p.].
Records of 10 rare and noteworthy lichen species in Poland have been presented. Four species, Japewia subaurifera, Myriolecis persimilis, Palicella filamentosa, and Scoliciosporum sarothamni are new to the Polish part of the Sudetes. Anisomeridium polypori and Pyrenula coryli are new species to the Karkonosze Mountains. Keywords: lichenized fungi; lichen diversity; epiphytic lichens; Lower Silesia.
30305Kossowska M., Fałtynowicz W., Dimos-Zych M., Fałtynowicz H., Patejuk K., Piegdoń A., Buksakowska M. & Jarema P. (2018): Epiphytic lichens of circular permanent plots in Karkonosze National Park (SW Poland). - Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody, 37(3): 33–47.
Monitoring of lichens was carried out in three stages in 2004 – 2016 on 708 circular monitored permanent plots distributed evenly in the forests of Karkonosze National Park (SW Poland). In total, over 130 lichen taxa were found, out of which 114 were determinated for the species. The work presents their list, including the selection of which species were found in the monitoring stage. Only a few taxa have turned out to be ephemeral, and their attempts to settle in the Park have been unsuccessful so far. An increase in the taxonomic diversity of the biota of lichens was found. The quantity of most species and the number of their localities are also increasing. These phenomena are part of the recolonization process of lichens observed throughout Europe. Key-words: lichens, epiphytes, mountain forests, Karkonoski National Park.
30304Afieroho O.E., Noundou X.S., Krause R.W.M., Isaacs M., Olley L., Hoppe H.C. & Abo K.A. (2018): An antiplasmodial depside from a Nigerian lichen Dirinaria picta, epiphytic on the oil palm Elaeis guineense. - Revista Boliviana de Química, 35(1): 31–39.
This study investigated the anti-plasmodial and cytotoxic potentials of the chloroform (LCE) and ethanol (LEE) extracts from the foliose lichen Dirinaria picta with the view of isolating anti-malarial drug lead compound (s). In vitro anti-plasmodial and cytotoxicity assays were done using the plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay and human HeLa cervica cell lines respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. The LCE yielded a novel antiplasmodial depside 1 (antiplasmodial IC50≈ 37 µg/mL; cytotoxicity (IC50> 100 µg/mL; Selectivity index> 2.7) and an impure fraction LC2 (antiplasmodial IC50≈ 79 µg/mL; cytotoxicity (IC50> 100 µg/mL; Selectivity index< 1.3). The LEE (antiplasmodial IC50≈ 17 µg/mL; cytotoxicity (IC50≈ 62 µg/mL; Selectivity index≈ 3.7) showed a significantly (p< 0.05) better anti-plasmodial activity though more cytotoxic compared to depside 1 and LC2. The depside 1, LC2 and LEE were less cytotoxic compared to emetine (cytotoxicity (IC50= 0.02 µM≈ 0.013 µg/mL) though not as active as the reference drugs chloroquine (antiplasmodial IC50= 0.031 µM≈ 0.016 µg/mL). This is the first time report on the anti-malarial potential of Nigerian lichens and the isolation of a novel anti-plasmodial depside 1.
30303Maldonado Montaño A., Menesses R., Bravo J.A. & Vila J.L. (2016): Presence of atranorin in Physcia sorediosa. - Revista Boliviana de Química, 33(5): 174–178.
In this short report we inform over the presence of the depside named atranorin in the lichen Physcia sorediosa (Physciaceae) by means of isolation techniques and structural characterization by using NMR techniques. The lichen was collected at the UMSA campus Cota Cota in La Paz. To the best of our knowledge this is the first characterization of this depside in the lichen Physcia sorediosa.
30302Riveros González C.L., Sosa Tordoya F., Ruiz Pinell G., Ávila Illanes J.A., Mollinedo Portugal P. & Vila Castro J.L. (2012): Evaluación del efecto inmunomodulador del ácido úsnico sobre la capacidad fagocítica, adherencia, quimiotaxis celular y citotoxidad sobre monocitos y polimorfonucleares. - Revista Boliviana de Química, 29(1): 39–54.
This study describes the evaluation of activities cytotoxic and immunomodulating effect of the acid úsnico, secondary metabolite obtained from a lichen, Usnea sp., with a high potential leishmanicidal in vitro (IC50 10.3 ug/mL) according to research of the I. I. F. B. collected in the locality of: Pazña (Oruro, Bolivia), which is attributed to him a variety of uses in traditional medicine as be antibacterial and antifungal. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against human cells from peripheral blood (monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes), at concentrations less than or equal to 250 µg/mL, taking that the CC50 of monocytes exposed to acid úsnico per 24 hours was 63.5 µg/mL and at 48 hours was 58.9 µg/ml in relation to the Glucantime that at the same incubation time was 45.3 µg/ml and 38.6 µg/ml for polymorphonuclear cells at 6 hours of exposure showed a CC50 of 58.9 µg/ml and 12 hours a CC50 of 54.3 µg/ml, the Glucantime in the same incubation period showed a CC50 of 43.5 µg/ml and 36.5 µg/ml. On the other hand, the effect inmunomodulador of the sour úsnico specifically on the quimiotaxis, adherence, fagocitosis and the activity total hemolítica of the complement, having that the sour úsnico favors the quimiotaxis from the monocitos to the concentrations of 31,2 and 15,6 µg / mL, it increases the capacity of cellular adherence of the monocitos and polymorphonuclear cells at concentrations greater than 125 µg/ml in general reduces the percentage of cells with capacity to phagocytose at concentrations greater than 15.6 µg/ml and has an effect on the hemolytic activity of the complement system in the range of concentrations ranging between 125 and 15.6 µg/ml was a decrease of 50 % of the hemolytic activity of the complement system. These results provide a basis to suggest that the Acid Úsnico has potential for the development of drugs against Leishmania, which must be validated in future studies in vivo in animal models.
30301Navarro G. E., Ávila I. J.A., Mollinedo P. P., Vila C. J.L. & Ruiz P. G. (2010): Valoración de la toxicidad aguda in vivo del ácido úsnico. - Revista Boliviana de Química, 27(2): 89–93.
An experimental study was realized, the main objective was evaluated, toxic effect of usnic acid, isolated from a lichen usnea spp. determination of lethal dose at 50% mortality (dl50) throughout reed muench mathematical method and the probit graphical method. The selected animals were albino female swiss mice, weighted between 18 and 20g, using a 2000 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 775 mg/kg, 662 mg/kg, 550 mg/kg and 175 mg/kg by kilogram corporal weight, as dose administrated by orogastric via under study during 14 days. The result comes out a dl50 between 798.47 mg/kg and 776.25 mg/kg. according to the williams criteria, usnic acid is considered a lightly toxic product. The methodology and the experimental designed was carried out following the described orientation by the epa (ambient protection agency) 870.1100, oecd 425 (economic organization for trade and development), that covers the 24 most develop nations of the world, for the application of the acute toxicity class method (cta).
30300Bedregal P., Mendoza P., Ubillús M., TorresB., Hurtado J., Mazac I. & Espinoza R. (2009): El uso de Usnea sp.y Tillandsia capillaris, como biomonitores de la contaminación ambiental en la ciudad de Lima, Perú [The use of Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaris as biomonitors of environmetal pollution in Lima city, Peru]. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 75(4): 479–487.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In order to evaluate pollution in the city of Lima, Peru, an environmental monitoring was carried out using two species of biomonitors: Liquen Usnea sp. and Tillandsia capillaries. Both samples were taken from an uncontaminated area to be exposed during three months in different sampling sites of the city. Then samples were collected, prepared and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, based k0 method. Results showed important contamination in East and North sites of the city coming from industrial activities and automotive vehicles emissions. Key words: biomonitoring, neutron activation analysis, lichen, Tillandsia capillaris.
30299Castro Mandujano O.N. (2010): Contribución al estudio fitoquímico del liquen Thamnolia vermicularis subsp. vermicularis s. str. [Contribution to the phytochemistry study of the lichen Thamnolia vermicularis subsp. vermicularis s. str.]. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 76(4): 322–329.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In the present work there was investigated the Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. Ex-. Schaer. subsp. vermicularis. Two successive extractions were done by maceration in acetone; one proceeded to separate diverse components of the extract, for it there were used solvents and mixtures of solvents of increasing polarity; then isolated and purified by means of chromatographic techniques and recrystallizations. Finally, they were elucidated and there decided the structures of the obtained solids; analyzing his spectra of IR, H1-NMR, C13-NMR and SM; these are: compound H (decarboxithamnolic acid), and the compound D (thamnolic acid). Key words: Liichen, Thamnolia vermicularis, thamnolic acid, decarboxithamnolic acid.
30298Castro Mandujano O.N. (2011): Contribución al estudio fitoquímico de la Psiloparmelia distincta (Nyl.) Hale [Contribution to the phytochemistry study of the Psiloparmelia distincta (Nyl.) Hale]. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 77(1): 56–65.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] In the present work was realized the isolation and study of lichen substances of the Psiloparmelia distincta (Nyl.). Successive extractions were done by acetone and methanol. It was separated and purified some compounds of the extracts, using solvents and mixtures of solvents of increasing polarity, in diverse chromatographic methods and recrystallizations. They were elucidated and decided the structures of the obtained compounds, analyzing his spectra of UV, IR, RMN-H1 RMN-C13, DEPT and EM; these compounds are: H (acid 2-hydroxi-3-formil-4-etoxi-6-methyl-benzoic), A (acid fumarprotocetrárico). Key words: Lichen, Psiloparmelia distincta, acid 2-hidroxi-3-formil-4-etoxi-6-metil- benzoic, fumarprotocetraric acids.
30297Zelada B.R. & Pastor de Abram A. (2012): Estudio fitoquímico de Usnea durietzii Mot. (Usneaceae) [Phytochemistry study from Usnea durietzii Mot. (Usneaceae)]. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 78(4): 264–276.
[in Spanish with English abstract:] In Peru, there are few lichen phytochemical studies as they require much greater attention. Lichen substances have different purposes, such as antibacterial, antitumor, herbicide and insecticide. The genus Usnea has a wide variety of species, Usnea durietzii the specie used in this study doesn't report any phytochemical studies on national or international level to date. The objective of this research was to isolate and identifying lichenic components from Usnea durietzii. Through the screening of its phytochemistry we were able to determine quinones, triterpens and steroids, and to a lesser degree phenols, tannins, fats, lactones and coumarins, sugar and flavonoids. The extraction of secondary metabolites was made from extracts with solvents of increasing polarity, and permitted us to isolate and characterize the spectroscopic compound C18H16O7 usnic acid and the compound C18H12O10 salazinic acid. Key words: phytochemical, lichen, Usnea durietzii, usnic acid, salazinic acid, spectroscopic technics.
30296Castro M.[Mandujano] O.N., Santiago J. & Álvarez J. (2017): Aislamiento y elucidación estructural de un compuesto nitrogenado y del haematomato de etilo del liquen Everniopsis trulla. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 83(2): 131–142.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] The chloroform extract of the Peruvian lichen Everniopsis trulla, were isolated four metabolites, being three already reported in the literature (usnic acid, atranorin, Ethyl haematommate) and a new, which were identified and elucidated by one-dimensional spectroscopic techniques (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR DEPT) and two-dimensional (COSY, HMBC and NOESY), mass spectrometry and IR and UV spectroscopy. This work is the first chemical study of lichen Everniopsis trulla. Key words: usnic acid, atranorin, Everniopsis trulla, ethyl haematommate, lichen.
30295Ramos Chávez J. & Cóndor Cuyubamba E.A. (2018): Aislamiento del ácido lecanórico y ácido úsnico del liquen Umbilicaria calvescens Nyl. [Isolation of lecanoric acid and usnic acid from lichen Umbilicaria calvescens Nyl.]. - Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 84(2): 197–203.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] From the lichen Umbilicaria calvescens Nyl., was made the isolation of the major lichen compounds: usnic acid and lecanoric acid. Isolation of lichen compounds was performed by column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (CCF) of the extracts made in acetone and hexane. Yellow crystals were obtained from the n-hexane extract, while a white solid was obtained from the acetone extract. The crystals obtained were identified by their physical characteristics and by the UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. Key words: usnic acid, lecanoric acid, Umbilicaria calvescens Nyl., lichens.
30294Rodriguez J.M., Hernandez J.M., Filippini E., Cañas M. & Estrabou C. (2016): Nuevas citas de macrolíquenes para Argentina y ampliaciones de distribución en el centro del país. - Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 51(3): 405–417.
New records of macrolichens and increasing distributional range in central Argentina. Four species of lichenized Ascomycetes are mentioned for the first time from Argentina: Endocarpon pallidulum, Placidium arboreum, Pyxine astridiana and Usnea michauxii. A brief description of each one is presented considering morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics. The distribution of 68 lichen species in Argentina is also extended. Key words: Diversity, taxonomy, lichenized Ascomycetes, South America.
30293Vaillant Flores D.I., Romeu Carballo C.R., Gómez Peralta M. & Ramírez Ochoa R. (2014): Actividad fungicida del hongo liquenizado Loxospora pustulata sobre Rhizoctonia solani [Fungicide activity of lichen-forming fungi Loxospora pustulata above Rhizoctonia solani]. - Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología, 16(21): 12–14.
[in Spanish with English abstract:] The lichens are fungi that establish a symbiotic relation with one or various photosynthetic organisms (algae or cyanobacterium). In this relation the fungi (mycobiont) produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity. For this reason the fungicide effect of metabolites produced in culture media by the lichen’s mycobiont Loxospora pustulata, above Rhizoctonia solani isolated from potato was verified. The mycobiont was cultivated in media potato dextrose agar (PDA) and it was fermented in potato broth by shaken culture. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate. A solution in PDA at 0,01: 0.03: 0,07% w/v concentrations was prepared from the lichens extracts. R. solani discs were placed in the solution and the mycelial growth inhibition percentage was measured. The lichen extract showed 100% of inhibition of the R. solani mycelial growth to all concentrations. Keywords: Lichens; Lichens substances; Fungicide activity.
30292Lavornia J.M., Kristensen M.J. & Rosato V.G. (2016): Clave de identificación de líquenes saxícolas del Paisaje Protegido “La Poligonal” (Sistema de Tandilia, Buenos Aires) [Identification key for saxicolous lichens in “La Poligonal” Protected Landscape (Tandilia System, Buenos Aires)]. - Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 18(2): 107–115.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] This work provides a dichotomous key to recognize all the saxicolous lichen species known from “La Poligonal” Protected Landscape in Tandillia orographic System, Buenos Aires, Argentina. This key also includes notes on their distribution and chemistry characteristics. A Total of 70 species are listed, 9 of which are new records for Tandilia, while 7 are new records for the province of Buenos Aires and one is a new record for Argentina. A detailed description is given for 5 species recognized at genus level and for the new species in the area. Key words: Dichotomous key, Tandilia, saxicolous lichens.
30291García R.A. (2018): Presencia del liquen de agua dulce Verrucaria aethiobola (Ascomycota, Verrucariales) en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Presence of the freshwater lichen Verrucaria aethiobola (Ascomycota, Verrucariales) in Buenos Aires province (Argentina)]. - Lilloa, 55(1): 98–102.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Verrucaria aethiobola is a cosmopolitan lichen of freshwater previously cited in Argentina from Neuquén province. In this study, it is recorded for the first time from Buenos Aires province. A description of the species, illustration of the specimen, and comments on its ecology and geographical distribution are presented. Keywords: aquatic; crustose; distribution; stream.
30290Baena A., Gomez-Giraldo L., Gomez W.A. & Pelaez C.A. (2015): Murine invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids derived from extracts of the lichen Stereocaulon ramulosum. - Vitae, Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, 22(1): 13–26.
Background: Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT ) can be activated by certain types of glycolipids that have the potential to generate adjuvant effects which could be used to develop effective and safe immunotherapies. Many of these glycolipids have been isolated from natural organisms, but there is a great amount of these organisms completely unexplored as a source of these types of compounds. Some of these organisms are lichens which are complex symbiotic organisms that have been showed to contain glycolipids. Objectives: We decide to test if glycolipids isolated from lichens would be able to activate iNKT cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: We have used extracted glycolipids from 43 different species of lichens from Colombia. We have used iNKT hybridoma cells, C57BL/6 mice, IL-2 ELISA and the B16 melanoma to test for the adjuvant capabilities of glycolipids isolated from lichens. Results: In this study we have found two glycolipids with the capacity to activate iNKT cells in vitro. One of the glycolipids was able to activate iNKT cells in vivo, and was competent to induce protection against the B16 melanoma in the mouse model. Conclusions: We propose a possible chemical structure for a novel glycolipid called β-GalCer-lich (1) derived from the lichen Stereocaulon ramulosum. Keywords: iNKT s; Glycolipids; CD1d; Lichens; Adjuvant.
30289Simijaca D., Moncada B. & Lücking R. (2018): Bosque de roble o plantación de coníferas, ¿qué prefieren los líquenes epífitos?. - Colombia Forestal, 21(2): 123–141.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Quercus humboldtii is a dominant element in the high Andean forests of Boyacá, Colombia. Despite being an umbrella species, it has a per-capita consumption of 1300 Kg.year-1 and its natural stands are widely replaced with plantations of Pinus patula. This replacement affects the most sensitive epiphyte communities. To track these conditions, lichens were examined on four trees of each phorophytic species. Each tree was divided into five vertical levels and bark roughness and acidity, as well as humidity and luminosity were measured at each level for each tree. The data were analysed by means of diversity indexes, Anova, and multidimensional scaling. 161 lichen fungal species were recorded, 53 of these unique to pine trees and 45 unique to oak trees. Cladonia ceratophylla and Herpothallon rubrocinctum stand out as a frequent species shared between both phorophytes, whereas Astrothelium spp, Anzia leucobatoides y Leptogium diaphanum are exclusive to oaks. Luminosity and bark roughness are factors influencing lichen community formation. Keywords: native forest, bark, composition, cyanolichens, phorophyte.
30288Simijaca-Salcedo D.F., Vargas-Rojas D.L. & Morales-Puentes M.E. (2014): Uso de organismos vegetales no vasculares como indicadores de contaminación atmosférica urbana (Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia) [Use of non vascular plant organisms as indicators of urban air pollution (Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia)]. - Acta Biológica Colombiana, 19(2): 221–232.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Lichens and bryophytes are useful organisms in air quality determination. In the city of Tunja (Boyacá, Colombia), is evident the lack of green areas by the increase of building, which contributes to the detriment of the atmospheric purity making unhealthy conditions to the citizens and habitats and population reduction of cryptogamic plants. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) we identified the greater influence air pollutants areas. Parmotrema austrosinense has the highest frequency; and the Normal Femenina station with an IAP of 52,2196 is an atmospheric pollutants influenced area; Parque Santander and Semáforos, are the most contaminated (IAP 8,5333) with only two species (Heterodermia albicans and Lobariaceae sp.). We highlight the evaluation in the Reserva Forestal Protectora El Malmo with an IAP of 34,0281 and 23 species. IAP values were grouped in isocontamination areas to be represented cartographically. The use of bioindicators organisms is a natural and economic strategy allowing us to mapping urban areas and make revegetation cities designs, generating the contaminants diminution air impact improving the citizen’s life quality. Keywords: bryophyte, contamination, index, lichens, urban.
30287Moncada B. & Forero E. (2006): El género Pseudocyphellaria Vain. (Lobariaceae - Ascomycetes Liquenizados) en Colombia [The genus Pseudocyphellaria Vain. (Lobariaceae - Lichenized Ascomycetes) in Colombia]. - Caldasia, 28(2): 197–215.
[in Spanish with English abstract: ] Six species are now recognized to grow in Colombia [P. aurata (Ach.) Vain., P. crocata (L.) Vain., P. intricata (Del.) Vain., P. arvidssonii D. Galloway, P. clathrata (De Not.) Malme, and P. encoensis R. Sant.], three of which (P. arvidssonii, P. clathrata and P. encoensis) are new records for the country. Anatomical and morphological descriptions are provided for each species, together with results from chemical tests with K, P, C and KC and thin layer chromatography, and ecological and distributional data. Keys to the genera of Lobariaceae as well as to the Colombian species of Pseudocyphellaria are provided. Key words. Pseudocyphellaria, flora of Colombia, diversity of lichens, lichens, lichenized ascomycetes.
30286Zanetti C.A., Barbosa S.B., Adachi S.A. & Marcelli M.P. (2017): Pseudocyphellae ontogeny and thallus anatomy in species of Punctelia Krog (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota). - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 31(1): 51–57.
Th e genus Punctelia has been traditionally characterized by the type and distribution of pseudocyphellae, medullary chemical substances and the shape of conidia, whereas its species have been distinguished using mainly the shape, location, abundance and size of pseudocyphellae. Given that Punctelia is not monophyletic, additional studies are needed to determine its current delimitation. Th e present study used conventional techniques for structural studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy in order to describe and compare the structure and ontogeny of the pseudocyphellae of fi ve species of Punctelia. Th e main diff erences among the studied species involve the type of pseudocyphellae development, the presence or absence of an epicortex cover and the organization and structure of the upper cortex. In one group of species the pseudocyphellae are formed from the outside to the inside of the thallus; in the other group, pseudocyphellae formation begins with the organization of medullary hyphae into circular groups in specifi c places. Th e present study contributes to the understanding of the structure and ontogeny of pseudocyphellae. Keywords: aeroplectenchyma, lichen anatomy, light microscopy, Parmeliaceae, plectenchyma, pseudocyphellae, Punctelia.
30285Hampp R., Cardoso N., Fleig M. & Grüninger W. (2018): Vitality of lichens under different light climates in an Araucaria forest (Pró-Mata RS, South Brazil) as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence. - Acta Botanica Brasilica, 32(2): 188–197.
The vitality of 64 lichen species (107 individual lichen thalli) growing under different light climates in an Araucaria forest in South Brazil was analyzed by chlorophyll fluorescence. Study sites were grouped according to their local light availability under full sunlight (about 2200 μmol m-2 s-1): 1 = low light, up to 20 μmol m-2 s-1; 2 = medium light, 20 to 100 μmol m-2 s-1; and 3 = high light, more than 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, as shown by Fv/Fm of dark-adapted samples, was mainly between 0.3 and 0.7, with extremes of below 0.1 and up to 0.85. On average, yields were highest with low light availability (0.66). Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from each other, but groups 1 and 3, as well as groups 2 and 3 were. After dark adaptation, lichens were exposed to different light intensities by means of a chlorophyll fluorometer. The results show that low light-adapted lichens exhibit the highest sensitivity to excess light, as was also indicated by the data for non-photochemical quenching. Thus, shade-adapted lichens are obviously well protected from possible damage caused by excess light, which is important when exposed to sun flecks. Keywords: Araucaria forest, chlorophyll fluorescence, heat dissipation, lichens, PAM fluorometer, photosynthetic yield.
30284Koch N.M., Lucheta F., Käffer M.I., Martins S.M.A. & Vargas V.M.F. (2018): Air quality assessment in different urban areas from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, using lichen transplants. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências [Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences], 90(2 Suppl 1): 2233–2248.
Based on the need to monitor air pollution and on the importance of doing it with biological organisms, the present work had as main objective to assess air quality in urban areas through lichen transplants. Besides, we also tested whether there were differences among the studied sites, aiming to point out the main pollution characteristics of the areas. The monitoring was carried out in seven cities, which varied from mainly rural to mainly industrial, in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum was used as the biomonitor species. Physiological tests and contents of sulphur and heavy metals were measured in the lichen thalli. Other pollutants assessed through air samplers were available for some cities, and modeled concentrations of fine particulate matter and nitrogen oxides for all sites. The effect of air pollution negatively reflected on the physiology parameters of the lichen and the concentration of all heavy metals increased after exposure, especially in the industrial sites. We generated a profile of air pollutants and pointed out that Charqueadas and Esteio had the worst air quality. Since they have high demographic densities, the results are of great public health concern and could be guidelines for future studies. Key words: air pollution, biomonitoring, greenhouse gases, heavy metals, lichenized fungi, particulate matter.
30283Marques Junior A.N., Panetto D.P., Lamego F., Nepomuceno F.O., Monna F., Losno R. & Guillon R. (2018): Tracking atmospheric dispersion of metals in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan region (Brazil) with epiphytes as bioindicators. - Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências [Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences], 90(3): 2991–3005.
The atmospheric dispersion atmospheric plume of the metropolitan region and neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated through elemental analyzes (Na, K, Al, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr) and stable lead isotopes in two epiphytes; the lichen Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) and the bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides (L.). All the elements had lower concentrations in epiphytes than in rocks of the local geological basement, with the exception of K, which was similar to rocks. This behavior was attributed to the nutritional essentiality and abundance of this element in the environment. The concentrations of Na, Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb ratios indicated the presence of spatial gradients in the path (a) sea shore → continent, and (b) urban center → farmlands. These patterns were associated with the mesoscale atmospheric circulation regime, in which, during the arrival of cold fronts, air masses from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro are transported towards the mountainous region of Teresópolis, which acts as a barrier to the dispersion of pollutants. The bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides and the lichen Parmotrema crinitum were linked to Na and Pb atmospheric levels, respectively. Key words: Stable lead isotopes, atmospheric pollution, Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.), Tillandsia usneoides (L.)
30282Pereira T.A., Passos P.O., Santos L.A., Lücking R. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2018): Going extinct before being discovered? New lichen fungi from a small fragment of the vanishing Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. - Biota Neotropica, 18(1): e20170445 [11 p.].
In the frame of an ongoing lichen inventory of Atlantic Rainforest remnants in Northeast Brazil, five new species of Graphidaceae were discovered in a small forest fragment, Mata do Cipó, in Sergipe state, the smallest state of Brazil and among those with the highest deforestation rate in the country. An additional new species had already been collected in Panama before and was now also found in the Mata do Cipó and is described here as well. In total, 40 species of Graphidaceae are reported for this remnant, including a large number of taxa indicative of well-preserved rainforest. The new species are: Fissurina atlantica T.A. Pereira, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., Graphis subaltamirensis Passos, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., Ocellularia cipoensis L.A. Santos, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., O. sosma T.A. Pereira, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., O. submordenii Lücking, sp. nov. (also known from Panama), and Pseudochapsa aptrootiana M. Cáceres, T.A. Pereira & Lücking, sp. nov. The findings are discussed in the context of the strong fragmentation of the Atlantic Rainforest, with individual remnants apparently serving as refugia for residual populations of rare species of lichen fungi that were more widely distributed in the past, but currently seem to occur only in isolated fragments. Keywords: deforestation, fragmentation, lichen diversity, Graphidaceae, refugia, Sergipe.
30281Lucheta F., Koch N.M., Martins S.M.A. & Schmitt J.L. (2018): Comunidade de liquens corticícolas em um gradiente de urbanização na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos, no sul do Brasil. - Rodriguésia, 69(2): 323–334.
[in Portuguese with English abstract: ] Lichens are known worldwide as indicators of environmental quality because they are sensitive to environmental changes, specially the ones with anthropogenic origin. In this study, we analyzed species composition, richness and coverage of corticolous lichen communities in nine municipalities with different urbanization levels, and evaluated their similarities considering lichen species composition. The studied sites were distributed in rural, rural/urban and urban/industrial matrices. Ten phorophytes were sampled in each area using the rubber band method. A total of 215 lichen species were identified, of which nine species are new records: four are being cited for Brazil for the first time, and five for Rio Grande do Sul. As urbanization increased, a simplification of the lichen community structure was observed, as well as a decrease in species richness and changes on species composition. Besides, in the urban/industrial matrix, few species had high coverage percentage and together added great importance to the community. We found higher homogeneity on species composition in closer areas and in the ones that were inserted in the urban/industrial matrix. This study showed that urban tree vegetation is an important factor for lichen species establishment along an urbanization gradient. Key words: coverage, composition, rural-urban gradient, species richness.
30280Kantvilas G. & Gueidan C. (2018): Pannaria hookeri (lichenised Ascomycetes) – a remarkable new record for Australia. - Muelleria, 36: 74–80.
Pannaria hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl., a bipolar lichen, is recorded for the first time for Australia (south-west Tasmania) where it grew on alpine limestone outcrops. Its identity was confirmed by morphological, anatomical and DNA-sequence data. Keywords: biodiversity, lichens, species discovery, Tasmania.
30279Дармостук В.В. [Darmostuk V.V.] (2018): Нові знахідки ліхенофільних грибів з Українських Карпат [The new records of lichenicolous fungi from Ukrainian Carpathians]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 14(2): 173–179.
Three species of lichenicolous fungi are for first time reported in Ukraine from Chornohora Mountain Range. These are Arthonia subvarians, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae and Polycoccum umbilicariae. A. subvarians is the poorly known European species, characterized by slightly convex arthonioid ascomata, green-brown epithecium, hyaline to olive hymenium, K+ wine-red, clavate (4–)8-spored bitunicate asci and hyaline 1-septate soleiform ascospore. This species, together with Cercidospora epipolytropa and Intralichen baccisporus, grows on apothecia of Lecanora polytropa and produces dark necrotic spots on host. The taxonomic discussion and comparison with A. apotheciorum are provided. Didymocyrtis melanelixiae is characterized by immersed black globose conidiomata, ampuliform conidiogenous cells and broadly ellipsoid аseptate 1–2-guttulate hyaline conidia. It grows on thallus of Platismatia glauca together with Lichenoconium erodens and produces dark necrotic spots with the black edge. Polycoccum umbilicariae is the rarely reported species, characterized by black immersed to semi-immersed globous ascomata, hymenium without hamathecial filaments, clavate (4–)8-spored fisitunicate asci and olive to dark-brown ellipsoid (0–)1-septate smooth-walled ascospore. It growth on thallus of Umbilicaria cylindrica and produces decolorized spots with destroyed upper cortex. U. cylindrica is a new host species for Polycoccum umbilicariae. The discussion about current taxonomic position and comparison with the specimens of same species growing on another hosts are presented. Description, list of host lichens species, data about distribution in Ukraine and examined specimens are provided for each species. Keywords: Arthonia subvarians, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae, Polycoccum umbilicariae, Chornohora Mountain Range.
30278Ходосовцев О.Є., Дармостук В.В., Мойсієнко I.I. & Давидов O.В. [Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Moysiyenko I.I. & Davydov O.V.] (2018): Лишайники та ліхенофільні гриби острова Березань з нотатками щодо його флористичного та ландшафтного різноманіття [The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Berezan Island with notes on its floristic and landscape diversity]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 14(3): 279–290.
[in Ukrainian with English abstract: ] Forty three species of the lichens and five species of the lichenicolous fungi were found on the Berezan Island (Mykolaiv region, Ukraine). Lecania leprosa and Myriolecis bandolensis are the first time reported for Ukraine. Firstly, L. leprosa was found after diagnosis publish. M. bandolensis was distributed in Western Mediterranea, but the first time collected on Black Sea coast. The location of ephemeral lichen Epiphloea byssina is the second in steppe zone of Ukraine. It forms black crust on the cliff edges. In Ukraine, the island is a northern habitat for Collemopsidium halodytes that forms black zone in lower geolittoral zone. The lichens Athallia skii, Collemopsidium halodytes, Flavoplaca austrocitrina, F. limonia, Lecania inundata, Verrucula biatorinaria, Staurothele frustulenta and lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora caloplacae are new to Mykolaiv region. The limestone outcrops in geolittoral zone, branches of the shrubs (Kochia prostrata, Ephedra distachya) and soil in abrasion places are natural substrates for lichens. There are 50 % of species diversity here. The archeological artefacts (e.g. limestone walls, memorial stones), concrete builds are main substrates for lichens in island. Preliminary list of the vascular plants is 45 species from 40 genera, 20 familia and 2 division. The steppe species on the cliff edges are nature vegetation. Agropyron pectinatum, Festuca valesiaca (rare), Achillea setacea, Allium guttatum, Artemisia austriaca, Eryngium campestre, Salvia nemorosa, Poa bulbosa were dominate grass species on the island. Ephedra distachya is a species from Mykolaiv Red Data List. The illustrations of the island landscapes, lichens and vascular plants are given in the paper. Keywords: geolittoral, cliff, limestone, concrete, Myriolecis bandolensis, Lecania leprosa.
30277Громакова А.Б. [Gromakova A.B.] (2018): Нові знахідки лишайників та ліхенофільних грибів зі Східної України [New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Eastern Ukraine]. - Чорноморський ботанічний журнал [Chornomorski Botanical Journal], 14(3): 269–278.
[n Ukrainian with English abstract:] Five species of lichens and thirteen lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Eastern Ukraine. All species of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi were identified during studies conducted in the territory of the Kharkiv and Donetsk regions in 2012–2018, as well as during revision of materials from herbaria CWU and KHER. Calicium pinastri is a new for the plain part of Ukraine. It lignicolous species characterized by thin inconspicuous thallus, black stalked apothecia with brown hypothecium and 1-septate ellipsoid brown ascospore. Ten species of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi are new for the Left-Bank part of Ukraine. There are Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Didymellopsis perigena, D. pulposi, Erythricium aurantiacum, Flavoplaca austrocitrina, Lichenochora hypanica, L. weillii, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psorotichia montinii, Pyrenidium actinellum. Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Placopyrenium trachyticum and Scytinium tenuissimum are reported for the first time for the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora macrospora, Codonmyces lecanorae and Lichenostigma elongatum are first time reported to Kharkiv region. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora hypanica characterized by black globous immersed pseudothecia up to 150 mkm diam., 2-4-spored asci and 1-septate hyaline narrowly ellipsoid ascospore. This is the first report of L. hypanica outside of a type locality. It specimen was found on thallus of Endocarpon pusillum which is the new host species. The localities in Ukraine, ecology and distribution data for the new records are provided. The Ukrainian descriptions of Calicium pinastri and Lichenochora hypanica are given. Currently, there are 17 species of lichenicolous species was reported in Kharkiv region. Keywords: Calicium, Clypeococcum, Didymellopsis, Erythricium, Lichenochora, Pyrenidium, Psorotichia, Eastern Ukraine.
30276Bauer A. (2018): Pflanzenallergene. - Allergo Journal, 27(8): 16–20.
30275Schnuch A. & Griem P. (2018): Fragrances as allergens. - Allergo Journal International, 27: 173–183.
In parallel a German version published in Allergo Journal (see jjh 30274). Allergenic effects of various fragrances evaluated in this review, including those extracted from the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Contact allergies due to fragrances are common. If one adds up the reaction incidences of the indicators of fragrance allergy (fragrance mix [FM] I+ II, balsam of Peru and turpentine), these reach 17% in a hospital collective (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology [IVDK] data 2016) and are thus higher than those for nickel allergy (approximately 16%). In the case of positive reactions to FM I, >50% do not react to one of the components. This type of reaction should be interpreted as allergic with caution, unless other data (e.g., positive history, application test) support this interpretation. FM-I-positive individuals often react to oak moss (27.2%) and isoeugenol (18.2%). These are followed by hydroxycitronellal (10.9%), cinnamal (10.6%), cinnamyl alcohol (8.4%), eugenol (7.3%), geraniol (5.5%), and amyl cinnamal (1.5%). The frequency of sensitization (SF) to the individual fragrances depends on their allergenic potency (measured using the local lymph node assay, LLNA) and the frequency of use (extent of exposure). The relationship between SF and exposure is described by the sensitization exposure quotient (SEQ). The SEQ is a measure of the risk of sensitization. In general, it correlates with the SF on the one hand and with the allergenic potency (hazard) on the other. Exceptions to this rule indicate a newly recognized problem: (1) Although methyl 2-octynoate plays no role in SH statistics, it came third after tree moss and oak moss with its SEQ (=risk); (2) despite its low potency, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral®) had a relatively high risk. In this particular case, potency (the inherent hazard) was not the determinant of risk, but rather the overly high doses used. Allergy monitoring by clinical epidemiology needs to be more heavily supplemented by data on exposure. Keywords Fragrances · Contact allergy · Patch test · Allergy monitoring · Sensitization risk.
30274Schnuch A. & Griem P. (2018): Duftstoffe als Allergene. - Allergo Journal, 27(6): 42–54.
[In German]. In parallel an English version published in Allergo Journal International (see jjh 30275). Allergenic effects of various fragrances evaluated in this review, including those extracted from the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea.
30273Condon L.A. & Pyke D.A. (2018): Resiliency of biological soil crusts and vascular plants varies among morphogroups with disturbance intensity. - Plant and Soil, 433: 271–287.
Background and aims: Disturbance affects the ability of organisms to persist on a site, and disturbance history acts as a filter of community composition. This is true for vascular plants and morphological groups of biocrusts, which respond differently to disturbance. Although functioning arid ecosystems include both groups, filtering of morphological groups of biocrusts has not previously been compared simultaneously with the responses of vascular plants. Methods: Using a chronosequence approach, cover of vascular plants and biocrusts was examined across chronic disturbance gradients related to invasion by exotic species and grazing by livestock, following the acute disturbance of fire using paired burned and unburned plots in Wyoming big sagebrush on 99 plots. Results: Cover of vascular plants and biocrusts was related to disturbance more so than abiotic factors of precipitation following fire, soil chemistry, percent coarse fragment and heat load index. Over time since fire of 12–23 years, we saw recovery of early successional groups: short mosses, shallow-rooted perennial grasses and annual forbs. Cover of deep and shallowrooted perennial grasses and annual forbs increased in cover with intermediate levels of disturbance. Perennial forbs lacked a clear relationship with disturbance. Biocrusts decreased in cover with less disturbance when compared with perennial herbaceous plants but differed in sensitivities. Tall mosses were less sensitive to disturbance compared with lichens. Short mosses increased with some disturbance. Conclusions: Morphological groups of biocrusts and vascular plants are eliminated with increasing variability in the size of gaps between perennials represented by the standard deviation of gaps between perennials. The inclusion of both groups in assessments of ecosystem recovery following disturbance addresses the fact that recovery of either group does not happen in isolation from the other but with interacting contributions to ecosystem functions. Keywords: Bromus tectorum . Disturbance . Fire . Lichens . Livestock grazing . Shortmoss . Tall moss.
30272Hui R., Zhao R.M., Liu L.C., Li Y.X., Yang H.T., Wang Y.L., Xie M. & Wang X.Q. (2018): Changes in winter snow depth affects photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of biological soil crusts in the Tengger Desert. - Photosynthetica, 56(4): 1304–1312.
Water availability is a major limiting factor in desert ecosystems. However, a winter snowfall role in the growth of biological soil crusts is still less investigated. Here, four snow treatments were designed to evaluate the effects of snow depth on photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of biological soil crusts. Results showed that snow strongly affected the chlorophyll fluorescence properties. The increased snow depth led to increased contents of photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. However, all biological soil crusts also exhibited a decline in malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents as snow increased. Results demonstrated that different biological soil crusts exhibited different responses to snow depth treatment due to differences in their morphological characteristics and microhabitat. In addition, interspecies differentiation in response to snow depth treatment might affect the survival of some biological soil crusts. Further, this influence might lead to changes in the structural composition and functional communities of biological soil crusts. Additional key words: biological soil crusts; chlorophyll fluorescence; photosynthetic pigments; soluble sugar; water availability.
30271Hinojosa-Vidal E., Marco F., Martínez-Alberola F., Escaray F.J., García-Breijo F.J., Reig-Armiñana J., Carrasco P. & Barreno E. (2018): Characterization of the responses to saline stress in the symbiotic green microalga Trebouxia sp. TR9. - Planta, 248: 1473–1486.
Main conclusion: For the first time we provide a study on the physiological, ultrastructural and molecular effects of salt stress on a terrestrial symbiotic green microalga, Trebouxia sp. TR9. Although tolerance to saline conditions has been thoroughly studied in plants and, to an extent, free-living microalgae, scientific data regarding salt stress on symbiotic lichen microalgae is scarce to non-existent. Since lichen phycobionts are capable of enduring harsh, restrictive and rapidly changing environments, it is interesting to study the metabolic machinery operating under these extreme conditions. We aim to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to high salt concentrations on the symbiotic phycobiont Trebouxia sp. TR9, isolated from the lichen Ramalina farinacea. Our results suggest that, when this alga is confronted with extreme saline conditions, the cellular structures are affected to an extent, with limited chlorophyll content loss and photosynthetic activity remaining after 72 h of exposure to 5 M NaCl. Furthermore, this organism displays a rather different molecular response compared to land plants and free-living halophile microalgae, with no noticeable increase in ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression until the external NaCl concentration is raised to 3 M NaCl. Despite this, the ABA transduction pathway seems functional, since the ABA-related genes tested are responsive to exogenous ABA. These observations could suggest that this symbiotic green alga may have developed alternative molecular pathways to cope with highly saline environments. Keywords: ABA · Lichen · Ramalina · Saline stress · Terrestrial microalgae · Trebouxiophyceae.
30270Szufa K.M., Mietelski J.W., Anczkiewicz R., Sala D. & Olech M.A. (2018): Variations of plutonium isotopic ratios in Antarctic ecosystems. - Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 318: 1511–1518.
30269Węgrzyn M.H., Wietrzyk P., Lehmann-Konera S., Chmiel S., Cykowska-Marzencka B. & Polkowska Ż. (2018): Annual variability of heavy metal content in Svalbard reindeer faeces as a result of dietary preferences. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 36693–36701.
30268Fortuna L. & Tretiach M. (2018): Effects of site-specific climatic conditions on the radial growth of the lichen biomonitor Xanthoria parietina. - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 34017–34026.
The protocols commonly applied in surveys with lichens as biomonitors of airborne trace elements require analyses of samples derived from thalli or parts of thalli grown in the last year before sampling, under the postulation that samples of the same size are of the same age. Unfortunately, the influence of ecological site-specific factors on lichen growth is still largely ignored, so that samples of the same size collected in environmentally and climatically diverse sites might actually differ in age. This work aims at quantifying the influence of climatic conditions on the radial growth rates (RaGRs) of Xanthoria parietina, one of the most popular lichen biomonitors. RaGR was monitored in seven populations distributed along an altitudinal transect of 30 km in the Classical Karst (NE Italy), from 20 to 500 m above sea level. For c. 17 months, lobe growth was measured seasonally with a digital calliper, and site-specific climatic variables were monitored by means of thermo-hygrometric sensors and implemented by meteorological data. Finally, the lobe growth of X. parietina was modelled as a function of 18 environmental variables. Results revealed that thalli of relatively dry sites had significantly lower seasonal RaGR with respect to moister ones. Considering that cumulative precipitations were equally distributed along the transect, it was concluded that RaGR of X. parietina is affected negatively by high air temperatures and positively by high relative humidity. The importance of RaGR variation in lichen bioaccumulation studies is critically discussed. Keywords Altitude . Air pollution . Biomonitoring protocols . Climate . Trace elements .Water availability.
30267Malikova I.N., Strakhovenko V.D. & Shcherbov B.L. (2019): Distribution of radionuclides in moss-lichen cover and needles on the same grounds of landscape-climatic zones of Siberia. - Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198: 64–78.
The radiation status of the landscape and climatic zones of Siberia at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries is characterized using bioindicators/biomonitors: lichens, mosses, and needles, according to the results obtained at the sites of their joint growth. The maximal activity of 137Cs in these components is observed in the forest-tundra landscaped zone, polluted during the period of nuclear tests from the nuclear test site “Novaya Zemlya” and also due to slow migration of these elements to the soil under the arctic conditions. In the southern territories the specific activity of radiocesium in the moss-lichen cover and needles of conifers corresponds to the regional background, in the forest-tundra zone it sometimes exceeds it, but in general does not pose a threat to human health. Determined differences in the contents of radioactive elements in lichens and mosses that grow together on sites in different landscape zones of Siberia statistically not significant within one or two standard deviations, and recorded only in the range of 3ϭ at the level of significance 0.05. Specificity of radionuclide distribution in lichens, mosses and needles (differences for epigeals and epiphytic lichens; different species selected at one site, annual and perennial needles, etc.) made it possible to identify the causes of variations in their activities in different zones, along with landscape features of these zones. In the needles of conifers potassium concentration exceeds the content in lichens, at lower levels of thorium and 137Cs. The contents of uranium and thorium in the studied components in all landscape-climatic zones correspond to the natural ones, except for the single local territories, because of the possible anthropogenic influence. Keywords: Geochemistry; Radionuclides; Lichens; Mosses; Needles; Landscape zones; Siberia.
30266Taş İ., Han J., Park S.-Y., Yang Y., Zhou R., Gamage C.D.B., Nguyen T.V., Lee J.-Y., Choi Y.J., Yu Y.H., Moon K.-S., Kim K.K., Ha H.-H., Kim S.K., Hur J.-S. & Kim H. (2019): Physciosporin suppresses the proliferation, motility and tumourigenesis of colorectal cancer cells. - Phytomedicine, 56: 10–20.
Background: Lichens, which represent symbiotic associations of fungi and algae, are potential sources of numerous natural products. Physciosporin (PHY) is a potent secondary metabolite found in lichens and was recently reported to inhibit the motility of lung cancer cells via novel mechanisms. Purpose: The present study investigated the anticancer potential of PHY on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: PHY was isolated from lichen extract by preparative TLC. The effect of PHY on cell viability, motility and tumourigenicity was elucidated by MTT assay, hoechst staining, flow cytometric analysis, transwell invasion and migration assay, soft agar colony formation assay, Western blotting, qRT-PCR and PCR array in vitro as well as tumorigenicity study in vivo. Results: PHY decreased the viability of various CRC cell lines (Caco2, CT26, DLD1, HCT116 and SW620). Moreover, PHY elicited cytotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis at toxic concentrations. At non-toxic concentrations, PHY dose-dependently suppressed the invasion, migration and colony formation of CRC cells. PHY inhibited the motility of CRC cells by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and downregulating actin-based motility markers. In addition, PHY downregulated β-catenin and its downstream target genes cyclin-D1 and c-Myc. Moreover, PHY modulated KAI1 C-terminal-interacting tetraspanin and KAI1 expression, and downregulated the downstream transcription factors c-jun and c-fos. Finally, PHY administration showed considerable bioavailability and effectively decreased the growth of CRC xenografts in mice without causing toxicity. Conclusion: PHY suppresses the growth and motility of CRC cells via novel mechanisms. Keywords: Anticancer; Colorectal cancer; Motility; Tumourigenesis; Lichen; Natural product.
30265Lanier C., Deram A., Cuny M.-A., Cuny D. & Occelli F. (2019): Spatial analysis of environmental inequalities caused by multiple air pollutants: A cumulative impact screening method, applied to the north of France. - Ecological Indicators, 99: 91–100.
Differential and not fair exposure to environmental risk factors across socio-demographic groups, called environmental justice (EJ), may contribute to inequalities in health and most often put disadvantaged groups at higher risk for environmental health effects. Main literature has difficulties to consider the potential exposure of populations to different levels of air pollutants. Cumulative and long-term exposures are still seldom considered. We propose a comprehensive EJ methodology to prioritize and characterize neighborhoods which takes into account the cumulative impact of health determinants. For this purpose, the use of environmental biomonitoring is an innovative approach to consider the integrated and long-term exposure to complex air pollution. Cumulative Impact Screening (CIS) methodology was used for two contrasted living areas of France. CIS is based on synthetic and composite index construction. Three scores were attributed to each neighborhood according to a cumulative calculation of key parameters: environmental score (using 3 air biomonitoring parameters: trace elements loads in lichens, lichenic biodiversity and dust deposition on poplar leaves), socioeconomic deprivation score and susceptible population score. Each score can be considered as a dimension of health vulnerability. CIS analysis and maps highlighted the unequal spatial distribution of EJ. After the multi-criteria hierarchization of spatial units, the influence of each dimension was characterized in each neighborhood with radar charts. The study was carried out in two living areas in the north of France: a costal industrial zone, the Dunkerque Urban Community and a densely populated area located at the crossroads of Europe, the European Lille Metropolis. Three neighborhoods of the highest vulnerability level were identified in each area. We highlighted a same level of vulnerability can be related to different profiles of determinants. This multidimensional approach was able to discriminate neighborhoods with a gradient level of vulnerability in each area, despite different environmental, demographic and economic contexts. This cross-use constitutes a preliminary validation in order to assess the replicability of the methodology. This step showed that this approach could be replicated in countries or regions which would have different characteristics: it is both specific to a given context and well suited for different contexts. We demonstrated that environmental biomonitoring is a smart approach to fill the lack of available data on multiple air pollution at the local scale. The tool developed is specific to the territory and transposable and communicant, which facilitate adoption by a variety of community agency and other regulatory stakeholders, and prioritization of public health actions. Keywords: Plant biomonitoring; Synthetic index; Environmental justice; Health determinants; Territory vulnerability; Environmental management.
30264Jüriado I., Kaasalainen U., Jylhä M. & Rikkinen J. (2019): Relationships between mycobiont identity, photobiont specificity and ecological preferences in the lichen genus Peltigera (Ascomycota) in Estonia (northeastern Europe). - Fungal Ecology, 39: 45–54.
We studied the genotype diversity of cyanobacterial symbionts in the predominately terricolous cyanolichen genus Peltigera (Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes) in Estonia. Our sampling comprised 252 lichen specimens collected in grasslands and forests from different parts of the country, which represented all common Peltigera taxa in the region. The cyanobacteria were grouped according to their tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequences, and mycobiont identities were confirmed using fungal ITS sequences. The studied Peltigera species associated with 34 different “Peltigera-type” Nostoc trnL genotypes. Some Peltigera species associated with one or a few trnL genotypes while others associated with a much wider range of genotypes. Mycobiont identity was the primary factor that determined the presence of the specific Nostoc genotype within the studied Peltigera thalli. However, the species-specific patterns of cyanobiont selectivity did not always reflect phylogenetic relationships among the studied fungal species but correlated instead with habitat preferences. Several taxa from different sections of the genus Peltigera were associated with the same Nostoc genotype or with genotypes in the same habitat, indicating the presence of functional guild structure in the photobiont community. Some Nostoc trnL genotypes were only found in the Peltigera species of moist and mesic forest environments, while another set of Nostoc genotypes was typically found in the Peltigera species of xeric habitats. Some Nostoc trnL genotypes were only found in the Peltigera taxa that are common on alvars and may have specialized to living in this unusual and threatened habitat type. Keywords: Cryptic species; Habitat ekology; Lichenized fungi; Cyanobacteria; Nostoc; Photobiont selectivity; Substrate specificity.
30263Rastogi B., Berkelhammer M., Wharton S., Whelan M.E., Itter M.S., Leen J.B., Gupta M.X., Noone D. & Still C.J. (2018): Large uptake of atmospheric OCS observed at a moist old growth forest: Controls and implications for carbon cycle applications. - Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123: 3424–3438.
Diurnal and vertical patterns of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and CO2 mixing ratios above and within a 60‐m‐tall old‐growth temperate forest are presented. Canopy air from four different heights was sampled in situ using a continuous integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer during August–September 2014. Measurements revealed large vertical gradients in OCS, from which we inferred ecosystem fluxes. The diurnal cycle of OCS mixing ratios at all heights exhibited a typical pattern characterized by nighttime drawdown, an early morning minimum, and a maximum of OCS around midday. Daytime increase in the upper canopy is attributed to entrainment of planetary boundary layer air into the canopy. The ecosystem was found to be a large daytime sink of OCS (mean maximum daytime flux ~ −75 pmol · m−2 · s−1). Mean leaf relative uptake (concentration normalized uptake of OCS flux to CO2 uptake) was found to be 6.9. We discuss this high leaf relative uptake in the context of the presence and distribution of epiphytes at the site. While epiphytic uptake of OCS has been studied before, we show for the first time that this may contribute significantly to ecosystem fluxes under humid or moist conditions. We test this theory using a chamber experiment measuring epiphytic fluxes for two species of lichen and one moss species (in situ and in a laboratory). We suggest that the role of epiphytes should be explicitly considered when using OCS as a tracer of ecosystem‐scale photosynthesis in forest ecosystems with abundant epiphytic cover and biomass.
30262Eldridge D.J. & Delgado‐Baquerizo M. (2019): The influence of climatic legacies on the distribution of dryland biocrust communities. - Global Change Biology, 25: 327–336.
Predicting the distribution of biocrust species, mosses, lichens and liverworts associated with surface soils is difficult, but climatic legacies (changes in climate over the last 20 k years) can improve our prediction of the distribution of biocrust species. To provide empirical support for this hypothesis, we used a combination of network analyses and structural equation modelling to identify the role of climatic legacies in predicting the distribution of ecological clusters formed by species of mosses, lichens and liverworts using data from 282 large sites distributed across 0.6 million km2 of eastern Australia. Two ecological clusters contained 87% of the 120 moss, lichen and liverwort species. Both clusters contained lichen, moss and liverwort species, but were dominated by different families. Sites where the air temperature increased the most over 20k years (positive temperature legacies) were associated with reductions in the relative abundance of species from the lichen (Peltulaceae and Teloschistaceae) and moss (Bryaceae) families (Cluster A species), greater groundstorey plant cover and lower soil pH. Sites where precipitation has increased over the past 20k years (positive precipitation legacy) were associated with increases in the relative abundance of lichen (Cladoniaceae, Lecideaceae and Thelotremataceae) and moss (Pottiaceae) families (Cluster B species) and lower levels of soil pH. Sites where temperatures have increased the most in the past 20k years suppressed the negative effects of plant cover on Cluster B by reducing plant cover. Increased intensity of grazing suppressed the negative effect of soil pH and the positive effect of soil carbon, on the relative abundance of Cluster B taxa. Finally, increasing temperature and precipitation legacies reduced the negative effect of soil pH on Cluster B. Understanding of the importance of climatic legacies improves our ability to predict how biocrust assemblies might respond to ongoing global environmental change associated with increasing land use intensification, increasing temperature and reduced rainfall. Keywords: bryophyte, drylands, ecological clusters, lichen, liverwort, soil crust.
30261Liu D. & Hur J.-S. (2018): Candelaria asiatica, an ignored new species from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 46(4): 305–310.
The genus Candelaria is characterized by a micro-foliose to micro-fruticose thallus and contains eight species, two of which were reported in South Korea. During the excursion of a Korean lichen flora investigation, some suspected Candelaria concolor specimens were collected, and their morphological, chemical, molecular phylogenetic, and geographic analyses were conducted. The samples eventually proved to be a new species, Candelaria asiatica, which can be recognized by a small, yellow lobate thallus with a pulverulent surface, and a fragile lobe margin with blastidia or phyllidia-like lobules. Keywords: Candelariaceae; taxonomy; phylogeny; Asia.
30260Woo J.-J., Lőkös L., Farkas E., Park C.-H. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Cryptothecia austrocoreana (Arthoniales, Arthoniaceae), a new species from South Korea. - Mycobiology, 45(4): 270–285.
Cryptothecia austrocoreana is a new lichen species from South Korea. The species is characterized by the presence of a heteromerous thallus and faveolate ascigerous area (ascomata) immersed in a slightly raised thallus. The species has muriform ascospores, (4)6–8–spored 8–11 × 3–4 septate, (34)36–48(51) × (17)19–23(25) μm. Atranorin, chloroatranorin, and barbatic acid are present. In the phylogenetic tree, C. austrocoreana belongs to the arthonioid clade in Arthoniaceae. Keywords: Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales, Cryptothecia, New species, South Korea.
30259Park J.S., Park S.-Y., Park C.-H., Kondratyuk S.Y., Oh S.-O. & Hur J.-S. (2017): Taxonomic revision of the lichen genera Pertusaria, Varicellaria, and Variolaria (Pertusariales, Ascomycota) in South Korea. - Mycobiology, 45(4): 270–285.
The crustose lichen genus Pertusaria comprises over ca. 800 species worldwide. In total, 20 Pertusaria species were localized to the Mt. Sorak and Jeju-do in Korea. To date, information regarding the distribution of Pertusaria species in the South Korean peninsula is scarce. In this study, we collected Pertusaria species across South Korea and identified them based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. Of the 387 samples collected, we identified 24 taxa and 1 variety, of which 17 were previously recorded, and 6 taxa were newly found in South Korea (P. leioplaca, P. leucosora var. violascens, P. texana, P. thiospoda, P. thwaitesii, and P. xanthodes), 2 known species were transferred to Varicellaria (Varicellaria lactea and V. velata), one species was transferred to Variolaria as a new record (Variolaria multipunctoides) and one was a new species (P. jogyeensis J. S. Park & J.-S. Hur, sp. nov.). Characteristics of the newly discovered species, P. jogyeensis, are as follows: smooth to bumpy thallus, scattered to crowded poriform apothecia, blackish ostioles, definitely sunken, thin yellowish green rims around ostioles, 8-spored ascus, and the presence of perlatolic acid and thiophaninic acid (chlorinated xanthone). Phylogenetic studies on P. jogyeensis based on the mitochondrial small subunit sequence revealed proximity to P. flavicans and P. texana, and supported its classification as a new species within the genus Pertusaria. Additionally, we describe the chemical composition and morphology of all listed species in detail and provide an artificial key for identification. Keywords: Internal transcribed spacer, mtSSU, Pertusaria, Phylogenetic analysis, Taxonomy.
30258Lücking R. & Kalb K. (2018): Formal instatement of Allographa (Graphidaceae): how to deal with a hyperdiverse genus complex with cryptic differentiation and paucity of molecular data. - Herzogia, 31: 535–561.
Previous molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Graphis sensu Staiger (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae) represents two separate, only distantly related lineages. Graphis s.str. comprises the species of the G. scripta and G. subserpentina groups (‘Eugraphis’), as well as part of the G. striatula group. For the segregate genus, the name Allographa is available, and this genus includes the G. acharii, G. dussii, G. marginata, G. nuda, and G. symplecta groups, plus part of the G. striatula group. Allographa is closer to the core Graphidaceae (Diorygma, Glyphis, Pallidogramme, Phaeographis, Platygramme, Platythecium, Sarcographa, Thalloloma, Thecaria), whereas Graphis s.str. is sister to this entire clade and takes a more isolated position on a very long branch. A previously published study of 313 taxa, using morphology-based phylogenetic binning, supported the placement of 103 species of Graphis s.lat. in Allographa. This analysis is here emended to include 453 taxa currently placed in Graphis and Hemithecium, with the result that based on molecular and binning data, 182 species are to be placed in Allographa and 271 to be retained or placed in Graphis. Two species, namely Allographa lutea and A. hypostictica, had already been described in that genus, leaving 180 additional combinations, 28 of which are being proposed in a parallel paper; the remaining new combinations (plus one replacement name) in Allographa and Graphis are proposed here. Two names are validated, namely Allographa anguilliradians Lücking ex Lücking species nova and Allographa uruguayensis Lücking ex Lücking species nova. Two new synonyms are established: Graphis ferrugineodisca Seavey & J.Seavey [= Glyphis atrofusca (Müll.Arg.) Lücking, synonymum novum], and G. mikuraensis Y.Ohmura & M.Nakan. [= Graphis srilankensis Weerakoon, Wijey. & Lumbsch, synonymum novum]. Key words: Graphis, Hemithecium, morphological binning.
30257Kantvilas G. (2018): A new species of Dibaeis from Australia (Tasmania), with notes on the family Icmadophilaceae. - Herzogia, 31: 562–570.
The new species Dibaeis inundata is described from Tasmania and its relationships with other Australian species of the genus are discussed. A key to the four species in Australia is presented. The status of some other species of Icmadophilaceae is discussed briefly. It is recommended that the genus Knightiella be reinstated for the Australasian species, Icmadophila splachnirima. This genus is also suggested as a placeholder for two other species, and accordingly the new combination Knightiella eucalypti is proposed and the new species K. queenslandica is described, based on a collection from Queensland, Australia. Key words: Aquatic lichens, biodiversity, Icmadophila, Knightiella, lichens, lichenised fungi, taxonomy.
30256Bungartz F., Truong C., Herrera-Campos M. & Clerc P. (2018): The genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) in the Galapagos Islands. - Herzogia, 31: 571–629.
As part of an ongoing, comprehensive inventory of all Galapagos lichens, the genus Usnea is revised. In Galapagos this genus is represented by 27 species. Although 23 species had previously been reported, two are synonyms, and seven historic records must now be considered erroneous. Nine species are reported here for the first time and an additional four are described new to science: Usnea mayrhoferi, U. leana, U. patriciana, and U. subcomplecta. With two species previously described as new, U. clerciana and U. galapagona, six of the species now known are presumed to be endemic (22 %), a proportion of endemism similar to percentages reported for other, recently reviewed groups of Galapagos lichens. For two species, U. angulata and U. subflammea, only historic collections are currently known. Usnea angulata, with its trapezoid branch segments, is a very conspicuous, easily identified species. Despite thoroughly revisiting its historic collection sites, no material was found again and this species is therefore presumed to be locally extinct. Usnea subflammea, however, is less easily recognized and its original collection sites have not been intensively surveyed again. It is thus possible that this species is rare and overlooked, but not necessarily extinct. Characteristics of all species are illustrated and an identification key emphasizes their diagnostic characters. Detailed descriptions are provided for all newly described species and for those previously not well-documented. Key words: Biodiversity census, lichen inventory, taxonomy, lichenized Ascomycota.
30255Ahti T., Pino-Bodas R. & McCarthy J.W. (2018): Cladonia ignatii, an overlooked new lichen in eastern North America. - Herzogia, 31: 630–638.
Cladonia ignatii is described as a new species from eastern North America (type from SW Ontario, Canada). It is a segregate of C. ramulosa, but can be distinguished by soredioid-isidioid structures on ecorticate podetia and basal squamules. Its distinction is also supported by DNA sequences (ITS rDNA and rpb2). Records are known from Ontario, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Key words: Cladoniaceae, ITS rDNA, lichen-forming fungi, phylogeny, rpb2.
30254Lerch M., Nadyeina O. & Scheidegger C. (2018): Genetic structure of Lobaria pulmonaria in the Alps as a result of post-glacial recolonization history. - Herzogia, 31: 650–665.
The present-day genetic structure of a species is highly influenced by its history. Quaternary range expansions and contractions had a major impact on the genetic diversity and structure of species, which has implications for presentday conservation strategies of rare and threatened species. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure of Lobaria pulmonaria and its green-algal photobiont Symbiochloris reticulata from the Alps. Here we present the genetic structure of 75 Lobaria pulmonaria populations and we investigated which of three fungal and two algal genetic lineages that were recognized in a broader study on the European phylogeography of this species are present in the Alps and from where postglacial recolonization might have occurred. Our study showed that only the fungal genepool A and the algal genepool R contributed to the recolonization of the Alps. The fungal genepools B1 and B2 were restricted to the eastern and western borders of the Alps but play an important role in the current populations in the Jura Mountains, the Vosges and the Black Forest. The algal genepool S was only found at the southwestern borders of the Alps and we hypothesize that this genepool is adapted to Mediterranean climates. For both symbionts we found a significant positive correlation between longitude and allelic richness, indicating a recolonization of the Alps from a peripheral refugium for genepool A at the eastern border of the Alps or from the Carpathian Mountains. Key words: Allelic richness, Genetic Cluster Discrimination, Glacial refugia, Microsatellite markers, Phylogeography, Symbiochloris reticulata.
30253Zamora J.C., Millanes A.M., Etayo J. & Wedin M. (2018): Tremella mayrhoferi, a new lichenicolous species on Lecanora allophana. - Herzogia, 31: 666–676.
Tremella mayrhoferi, inducing galls on the hymenium of Lecanora allophana, is described. The description is based on molecular, morphological and ecological data of 27 specimens from Finland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and USA. The new species is easily distinguished from other lichenicolous Tremella species by its characteristic basidia with cells that elongate before the formation of epibasidia, combined with the macromorphology and host selection. Molecular phylogeny suggests that it forms a group with other species growing on Lecanora s. lat. and Lecidea s. lat., which is related to the Tremella species growing on Parmeliaceae, but not to Tremella s. str.
30252Grube M. (2018): Staurospora, a new genus for a unique species with spherical ascospores in Arthoniaceae. - Herzogia, 31: 695–699.
Staurospora, with S. purpurissata as the single species, is described as a new genus in the Arthoniaceae. The genus is distinct from all other members of the family by its peculiar ascospores. Key words: Arthoniales, lichens, ascospore types.
30251Knudsen K. & Kocourková J. (2018): Acarospora mayrhoferi (Acarosporaceae), a new species from the European Alps (Italian part) and the French Massif Central. - Herzogia, 31: 510–517.
Acarospora mayrhoferi is described from the Italian parts of the Alps and from the French Massif Central. It is a lichenicolous lichen, an obligate parasite on Dimeleana oreina, eventually forming its own independent brown thallus of flat black-edged areoles. The simple ascospores are sometimes globose 2 × 2 μm, often broadly ellipsoid 3 × 2 μm or ellipsoid 4–5 × 2 μm. The hymenial gel is I+ blue. It belongs to the morphological Acarospora anatolica group. A key is supplied for six similar parasitic species of Acarospora. Key words: Acarospora nashii, ascomycete, lichenicolous lichens, taxonomy, Toninia nashii.
30250Wirth V. & Sipman H.J.M. (2018): Xanthoparmelia krcmarii, a new species from South Africa with haemathamnolic acid . - Herzogia, 31: 505–509.
The new species Xanthoparmelia krcmarii is described from Western Cape province in South Africa. It is characterized by the presence of haemathamnolic acid, black apothecial discs, coarsely pruinose lobe tips and subglobose ascospores. Key words: Biodiversity, Lecanoromycetes, Parmeliaceae, new species, taxonomy.
30249Zhurbenko M.P., Tadome K. & Ohmura Y. (2018): Pronectria japonica species nova and a key to the lichenicolous fungi and lichens growing on Ochrolechia. - Herzogia, 31: 494–504.
Pronectria japonica growing on an unidentified Ochrolechia species is described as new to science. Dactylospora glaucomarioides, D. cf. pertusariicola, Lichenodiplis anomala, L. ochrolechiae, and Sagediopsis campsteriana are newly reported for Japan. Pyrenidium actinellum s. l. is for the first time documented on Ochrolechia. A key to the known species of lichenicolous fungi and lichens growing on Ochrolechia is presented. Key words: Japan, lichen parasites, Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales.
30248Hafellner J. (2018): Noteworthy records of lichenicolous fungi from various countries on the Balkan Peninsula. - Herzogia, 31: 476–493.
Altogether 56 species of lichenicolous fungi – most of them non-lichenized, a few lichenized – are recorded from various countries in south-eastern Europe, of which 20 species are reported for the first time from the Balkan Peninsula. The new records for individual countries are: Arthonia molendoi and Lichenoconium pyxidatae for Albania; Arthonia varians, Biatoropsis usnearum, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, and Tremella hypogymniae for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Arthonia molendoi, Endococcus perpusillus, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Miriquidica intrudens, Muellerella pygmaea, Plectocarpon encausticum, Polycoccum pulvinatum, and Stigmidium congestum for Bulgaria; Abrothallus bertianus, Abrothallus parmeliarum, Lichenoconium usneae, and Nesolechia oxyspora for Croatia; Arthonia phaeophysciae, Arthophacopsis parmeliarum, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenostigma maureri, Lichenothelia rugosa, Nectriopsis lecanodes, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Stigmidium squamariae, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Toninia plumbina, Tremella christiansenii, Unguiculariopsis lettaui, Tremella ramalinae, and Unguiculariopsis thallophila for Greece; Carbonea aggregantula, Carbonea supersparsa, Cercidospora epipolytropa, Echinothecium reticulatum, Endohyalina insularis, Lichenoconium pyxidatae, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Miriquidica invadens, Opegrapha pulvinata, Sclerococcum montagnei, and Sphaerellothecium cladoniae for Kosovo; Arthonia apotheciorum, Arthonia caerulescens, Arthonia epiphyscia, Arthonia protoparmeliopseos, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Lichenothelia rugosa, Miriquidica intrudens, Muellerella erratica, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Skyttea tephromelarum, Sphaerellothecium parmeliae, Sphinctrina turbinata, Tetramelas pulverulentus, and Unguiculariopsis thallophila for Macedonia; Arthonia apotheciorum, Cercidospora macrospora, Dactylospora lobariella, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae, Sclerococcum serusiauxii, Stigmidium gyrophorarum, Tremella phaeophysciae, and Tremella ramalinae for Montenegro; Arthonia varians and Muellerella pygmaea for Serbia. Additionally, Arthonia phaeophysciae is reported as new to Slovenia. Key words: Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, biodiversity, mycoflora, South-eastern Europe; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
30247Elix J.A. & McCarthy P.M. (2018): Three new species and four new records of buellioid lichens (Caliciaceae, Ascomycota) from south-eastern Australia. - Herzogia, 31: 444–452.
Three species, Amandinea nana Elix & P.M.McCarthy, Buellia ulliae Elix and Cratiria mayrhoferi Elix, are described as new to science. The new combination Amandinea hypostictica (Elix) Elix is proposed for Rinodinella halophila var. hypostictica Elix. Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) H.Olivier, B. ectolechioides (Vain.) Erichsen, B. ferax Müll.Arg. and B. suttonensis Elix & A.Knight are new records for Australia. Key words: Amandinea, biodiversity, Buellia, Cratiria, crustose lichens, taxonomy.
30246Arup U. (2018): Brigantiaea crystallina (Ascomycota, Teloschistales), a new species from South Korea and Japan . - Herzogia, 31: 424–429.
Brigantiaea crystallina Arup is described as new to science from South Korea and Japan. It is similar to B. purpurata but has a pale to pale brownish orange hypothecium, an excipulum penetrated by brownish orange anthraquinone crystals as well as colourless crystals that appear white in polarised light, the spores are smaller and the thallus lacks zeorine. The new species is illustrated and compared with similar species. A key to all Brigantiaea species of the world is also presented. Key words: Lichens, taxonomy, Asia, key, corticolous.
30245Sheard J.W. (2018): A synopsis and new key to the species of Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes) presently recognized in North America. - Herzogia, 31: 395–423.
One new species, Rinodina incurva, fifteen new North American species records for the genus Rinodina (including nine recently described taxa), and range extensions for 61 species are listed. One species, R. aurantiaca, is reduced to synonymy with R. capensis. A total of 111 species are now recognized for North America of which 36 (32 %) are endemic. Disjunctions of seven species with northeastern Asia are discussed. A new key to all species is provided. Key words: New species, new synonym, endemics, inter-continental disjunctions, intra-continental distributions.
30244Nascimbene J., Nimis P.L., Mair P. & Spitale D. (2018): Climate warming effects on epiphytes in spruce forests of the Alps . - Herzogia, 31: 374–384.
Climate warming in the Alps is setting major challenges to biodiversity conservation, potentially threatening epiphytic bryophytes and lichens, whose poikilohydric nature makes their eco-physiology strongly dependent on ambient temperature. In this work, we used species occurrence data along steep elevational-temperature gradients within the range of Alpine spruce-dominated forests for modelling the response of epiphytes to temperature shifts. Results provide evidence for species-specific and differently shaped species-temperature relationships, indicating that the sensitiveness of single species to climate warming is likely to influence community composition. Many epiphytes that currently occur in Alpine forests are vulnerable to warming, and may soon experience local extinction. The local assessment of the current altitudinal range of species may provide a tool to monitor the effects of warming by identifying the most critical species and the locations where their conservation is expected to be more effective. Key words: Bryophytes, lichens, elevational gradients, species elevational shifts, mountain areas, South Tyrol, Italy.
30243Christensen S.N. (2018): New or rarely reported lichens for Thrace, Greece. - Herzogia, 31: 390–394.
Forty five species are reported from Thrace. Tree taxa, Cladonia caespiticia, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Vahliella leucophaea, are new to the Greek mainland, and 34 taxa are new to Thrace. This is at the same time a first record of lichens on Quercus frainetto in Greece. Key words: Quercus frainetto, lichenized fungi, Rhodope Mountains.
30242Aptroot A. & Cáceres M.E.S. (2018): New species and new records of lichens from inselbergs and surrounding Atlantic rain forest in the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brazil). - Herzogia, 31: 359–373.
Seven species of lichens from the state of Bahia (Brazil) are described as new: Dimelaena mayrhoferiana, Enterographa glaucotremoides, Gassicurtia rhizocarpoides, Hypotrachyna maculata, Lecanora hypofusca, Maronina saxicola, and Myriostigma xanthonicum. In addition, 194 species are reported for the first time from Bahia, 15 of which were not known from Brazil before. Placynthiella oligotropha, which was abundant on soil in a rather dry forest without any other accompanying lichens, is a new record for the southern hemisphere. Key words: Lichenized ascomycete, taxonomy, Neotropis.
30241Breuss O. (2018): Neue und bemerkenswerte Flechtenfunde von den Azoren (Insel São Miguel). - Herzogia, 31: 430–435.
New and remarkable lichen records from the Azores (São Miguel Island). Fifteen lichen species from the Azorean island São Miguel are treated. Bacidia heterochroa, Graphis verminosa, Leptogidium contortum, Pyrenula chlorospila, and Thelopsis inordinata are new for Macaronesia. Byssoloma maderense and Thelotrema lueckingii are first records from the Acores. Key words: Lichenized Ascomycetes, new records, mycota of Macaronesia.
30240Stordeur R., Beck A., Christl S., Czarnota P., Eckstein J., Kison H.-U., Otte V., Seelemann A., Sipman H.J.M., Schiefelbein U. & Ungethüm K. (2018): Beiträge zur Flechtenflora Sachsen-Anhalts und angrenzender Regionen (Teil 1) . - Herzogia, 31: 700–715.
Contributions to the lichen flora of Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent regions (part 1). Thirty one taxa from Central Germany are treated. In total, 13 taxa, including three lichenicolous fungi, are new to Saxony-Anhalt, viz., Bacidia fraxinea, Caloplaca atroflava, Candelaria pacifica, Cetrelia monachorum, Hypogymnia bitteri, Lecidella elaeochroma f. soralifera, Micarea deminuta, Stereocaulon vesuvianum var. symphycheileoides, Vezdaea retigera, Xanthoparmelia protomatrae as well as the lichenicolous fungi Corticifraga fuckelii, Polycoccum peltigerae and Tremella cladoniae. Protothelenella corrosa has been rediscovered in Saxony-Anhalt after more than 80 years and Verruculopsis lecideoides after more than 100 years. A recent collection for Opegrapha dolomiticola (as from 2001) is recorded. Furthermore, new discoveries of the very rare species Pertusaria pertusa var. rupestris and the lichenicolous fungus Stigmidium fuscatae are reported. Additional new records for the list of lichens of Saxony-Anhalt comprise Lichenomphalia velutina and Ramonia interjecta, two species hitherto only mentioned in mycological paper from Saxony-Anhalt. Ophioparma ventosa has been collected for the first time outside of Mt. Harz on an exposed cretaceous sandstone block in the hill area. Vezdaea rheocarpa and the lichenicolous fungus Phoma cladoniicola are new to Thuringia. New records of Micarea deminuta are reported from Lower Saxony. Key words: Lichen diversity, rediscoveries, distribution, ecology, molecular analysis, Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), chemistry, microcrystal tests, spot tests, Harz Mountains, Lower Saxony, Thuringia, Germany.
30239Bilovitz P.O., Spribille T., Resl P. & Hafellner J. (2018): Helmut Mayrhofer – a tribute on occasion of his 65th birthday. - Herzogia, 31: 341–358.
Helmut Mayrhofer has been contributing to understanding the systematics and diversity of lichenized fungi for over four decades. In this paper introducing a Festschrift on the occasion of his 65th birthday, we review the impact of Helmut Mayrhofer’s scientific work on the systematics of lichenized fungi with special emphasis on the family Physciaceae and highlight his studies of the lichen flora of the Balkan Peninsula, the Alps and other regions. We also present a bibliography of his publications from 1973 to the present. Key words: Bibliography, biography, eponymy, Festschrift, lichenology, Physciaceae, Rinodina.
30238van den Boom P.P.G., Brand A.M., Coppins B.J. & Sérusiaux E. (2018): A new Micarea species from western Europe, belonging in the Micarea denigrata group . - Herzogia, 31: 385–389.
A new species of Micarea, M. sambuci is described from western Europe. Though it was common in the Netherlands and also present in Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Scotland, it could now be extinct. It differs from M. nitschkeana by the production of mesoconidia (2.7–4.1 × 1.1–1.5 μm) and complete absence of micro- and macroconidia. Key words: Lichenized ascomycete, Lecanorales, taxonomy.
30237Nordén B. & Aptroot A. (2018): Anisomeridium viridescens and Arthopyrenia callunae, two pyrenolichens new to Fennoscandia. - Graphis Scripta, 30(10): 166–169.
Anisomeridium viridescens and Arthopyrenia callunae are reported as new to Fennoscandia from south western Norway. They were found in boreonemoral rainforests on smooth bark of Corylus avellana and Calluna vulgaris, respectively.
30236Bresinsky A. (2018): Heading towards a survey of fungi in Bavaria – Josef Poelt’s contribution to achieving substantial progress. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 515–528, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30235Nimis P.L. (2018): The “Golden Period” of Italian lichenology and its importance in modern times. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 659–675, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30234Wirth V., Schiefelbein U. & Litterski B. (2018): The lichen flora of Germany - regional differences and biogeographical aspects. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 565–588, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30233Honegger R. (2018): Fossil lichens from the Lower Devonian and their bacterial and fungal epi- and endobionts. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 547–563, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30232Oberwinkler F. (2018): How to understand cryptogams? The development of research methods and their impact on the knowledge of cryptogams. A tribute to Josef Poelt. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 101–185, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30231Hertel H. (2018): Josef Poelt – on his personality and his footprints in the history of lichenology. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 1–100, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30230Hafellner J. (2018): Focus on lichenicolous fungi: Diversity and taxonomy under the principle "one fungus - one Name". - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 227–243, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30229Grube M. (2018): The lichen thallus as a microbial habitat. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 529–546, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30228Bilovitz P.O. & Mayrhofer H. (2018): Towards a checklist of the lichens of the Alps. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 589–596, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
30227Obermayer W., Witzmann M. & McCune B. (2018): Hypogymnia caperatica, a new species from the Hengduan Shan area (easternmost Tibetan region), with notes on some rare taxa from the greater Tibetan region and Bhutan. - Herzogia, 31: 677–694.
Hypogymnia caperatica, which contains caperatic acid as a major lichen substance in the medulla, is described as new from the Hengduan Shan area (southeasternmost boundaries of the Tibetan plateau). The aliphatic acid caperatic acid is reported for the first time from the genus Hypogymnia. The occurrence of fatty acids in the genus Hypogymnia is generally discussed. The very rare lichen Hypogymnia sikkimensis, hitherto only known from two localities in Sikkim, as well as Hypogymnia diffractaica and H. hengduanensis are reported as new for the Kingdom of Bhutan. Hypogymnia capitata, known from the type and paratype specimens only, is reported from three further localities in the East Tibetan region. Key words: Pruinose taxa, China, chemistry, apinnatic acid, fatty acid, lichenized fungi.
30226Obermayer W. (2018): A contribution to the knowledge on the lichenological exploration of the greater Tibetan region with a special focus on the impact of Austrian scientists or explorers. - In: Blanz P. (ed.), Biodiversity and Ecology of fungi lichens, and mosses. Kerner von Marilaun workshop 2015 in memory of Josef Poelt. Biosystematics and Ecology Series No. 34, p. 597–657, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.
The influence of six Austrian (or Austrian-born) scientists/explorers, namely three lichenologists (Alexander ZAHLBRUCKNER, Josef POELT and Walter OBERMAYER) and three collectors of lichens (Heinrich HANDEL-MAZZETTI, Joseph ROCK and Anton GEBAUER) on the knowledge on lichens from the greater Tibetan region is outlined. The contributions of some further lichenologists or botanists, of which substantial collection from Tibetan region are housed in the herbarium GZU (Graz, Austria), are briefly discussed and a list of more recent papers dealing with lichens from the named region is presented.
30225Яковченко Л.С., Желудева Е.В., Омура Й. & Давыдов Е.А. [Yakovchenko L.S., Zheludeva E.V., Ohmura Y. & Davydov E.A.] (2018): Lecanora somervellii – новый для России вид лишайника из Магаданской области [Lecanora somervellii – new lichen for Russia from Magadan Region]. - Turczaninowia, 21(4): 35–39.
The description and locality of the new to North Asia and Russia lichen species Lecanora somervellii Paulson found in Magadan Region are reported. The species is characterized by its effigurate, citrine-yellow thallus (due to the production of calycin and usnic acid), and convex apothecia with soon disappearing thalline margin and 8-spored asci. The species was previously known from Himalaya Mountains and Tibet. Keywords: Asia, biogeography, calycin, Himalaya, Lecanoraceae, Lecanora polytropa group, north of Far East, Tibet.
30224Pérez-Ortega S. & Kantvilas G. (2018): Lecanora helmutii, a new species from the Lecanora symmicta group from Tasmania. - Herzogia, 31: 639–649.
Lecanora helmutii Pérez-Ortega & Kantvilas from Tasmania is described as new to science. It shows characters typical of the Lecanora symmicta group, such as biatorine apothecia, Lecanora-type asci, and simple, hyaline ascospores. It is further characterized by whitish, discrete soralia and the presence of usnic acid and zeorin as major compounds. Using the universal fungal barcode nrITS and Bayesian and maximum likelihood inference of the phylogenetic relationships, we confirm its placement in the Lecanora symmicta group. Lecanora strobilina and L. strobilinoides are sequenced for the first time and their affiliation to the Lecanora symmicta group is likewise confirmed. Key words: Australia, Lecanoraceae, lichen-forming fungi, zeorin, usnic acid.
30223Berger F., Breuss O., Maliček J. & Türk R. (2018): Lichens in the primeval forest areas ‘Großer Urwald’ and ‘Kleiner Urwald’ (Rothwald, ‘Dürrenstein Wilderness Area’, Lower Austria, Austria). - Herzogia, 31: 716–731.
The lichen flora of ‘Großer Urwald’ and ‘Kleiner Urwald’, parts of the primeval forest ‘Rothwald’ in the ‘Dürrenstein Wilderness Area’, Lower Austria was investigated by us in 2015. We recorded 195 taxa, with 180 colonizing bark or wood (including five not lichenized taxa, traditionally collected by lichenologists), 15 growing on limestone and additional three lichenicolous fungi. Including earlier investigations dating back to 1964, the list compilates 324 taxa. The number of epiphytic and epixylic taxa ever recorded in the study area has grown to 274, however during our survey we were unable to find many previously recorded species. Most of the missing taxa are old-growth forest indicators. A table of all lichens recorded so far from Rothwald is given, sorted in columns by authors. – Loxospora cristinae, Micarea soralifera, Porina pseudohibernica, and Sclerophora coniophaea are recorded the first time in Austria. Biatora fallax, B. pontica, Dictyocatenulata alba, Lecidella subviridis, Mycoporum antecellens, Parmelia ernstiae, Peltigera hymenina, Thelidium auruntii, and Thelopsis flaveola are new for the province of Lower Austria. Both our 51 new records of epiphytic or epixylic taxa and the low amount of lichenicolous species indicate, that the whole diversity spectrum is still incomplete. Key words: Beech-silver fir-spruce forest, epiphytic lichens, lichen diversity, nature reserve, rare species, new records.
30222Zimmermann E. & Berger F. (2018): Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der lichenicolen Mycobiota Österreichs. Funde aus Tirol I.. - Herzogia, 31: 732–762.
Lichenicolous fungi were collected in Tirol (including Eastern Tirol, Austria) by the authors during the past years. The collections contain 133 taxa, of which 64 turned out to be new for Tirol. Many of the new records show an arctic-alpine distribution. New records in Europe are Abrothallus ramalinae, Pronectria fragmospora, P. tibellii, and Stigmidium buelliae. Ten taxa are new to the Alps and at the same time also new to Austria: Dactylospora ahtii, D. borealis, Endococcus cf. nanellus, Lichenodiplis rinodinicola, Lichenopeltella stereocaulorum, Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae, Stigmidium stereocaulorum, Taeniolella christiansenii, T. rolfii, and Trichonectria pertusariae. New to Austria (19 taxa): Arthonia neglectula, Echinodiscus kozhevnikovii, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, Hawksworthiana peltigericola, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenoconium lichenicola, Lichenopeltella uncialicola, Nectriopsis hirta, Neobarya peltigerae, Niesslia cladoniicola, Polycoccum microcarpum, Pronectria tincta, Pseudoseptoria usneae, Sphaerellothecium leratianum, Stagonospora exasperatulae, Stigmidium cladoniicola, S. collematis, S. microcarpum, and Tremella coppinsii. Cornutispora tricupulata and Stigmidium mayrhoferi are described as new to science. Photographs of some rare species are added. Key words: Cornutispora, Stigmidium, lichenicolous fungi, Alps.
30221Palice Z., Malíček J., Peksa O. & Vondrák J. (2018): New remarkable records and range extensions in the central European lichen biota. - Herzogia, 31: 518–534.
Noteworthy findings of 24 lichen species are presented. Nine of them are reported as new to Central Europe (Chaenotheca hygrophila, Cladonia krogiana, C. imbricarica, Gyalideopsis muscicola, Lecidea altissima, L. consimilis, Placynthiella hyporhoda, Rinodina stictica, and Waynea giraltiae). Most of further species are largely unrecorded taxa, and new distributional data remarkably extend their known ranges, at the same time being often new country records for Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia or Switzerland. A wider ecological amplitude is pinpointed for three species of Ostropomycetidae (Gyalideopsis helvetica, G. muscicola, Ramonia luteola). The fumarprotocetraric acid strain of Cladonia acuminata is newly reported from Europe. The poorly known taxon Lecidea consimilis is described in detail and lectotypified herein. Key words: Biodiversity, biogeography, Malmideaceae, Muránska planina National Park, rare species, substrate specifity.
30220Malíček J., Palice Z. & Vondrák J. (2018): Additions and corrections to the lichen biota of the Czech Republic. - Herzogia, 31: 453–475.
This contribution presents new records of lichenized and “lichen-allied” fungi for the Czech Republic and a list of all recently published species missing in the last national checklist (Liška & Palice 2010). Lecanora tephraea is supposed to be synonymous with L. cenisia and the lectotype is designated here. Polyblastia brunnensis is synonymized with Thelidium zwackhii. Caloplaca fiumana, lectotypified here, was found to be an older name of the recently described taxon Caloplaca substerilis subsp. orbicularis. Candelariella subdeflexa is replaced by C. blastidiata in the national checklist; Lecanora reagens is excluded from the Czech lichen biota. Twenty nine species are published as new to the Czech Republic: Absconditella rubra, Alyxoria ochrocheila, Aspicilia verrucigera, Blastenia hungarica, Carbonicola anthracophila, Chaenothecopsis montana, C. savonica, Epigloea pleiospora, E. urosperma, Gyalecta ophiospora, Lecanora epibryon, L. flavoleprosa, L. silvae-nigrae, L. stenotropa, Leptorhaphis maggiana, Micarea tomentosa, Myriolecis perpruinosa, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Parmelia serrana, Peltigera ponojensis, Pertusaria borealis, Placynthium caesium, Protoblastenia lilacina, Ramalina europaea, Rinodina trevisanii, Strigula glabra, Verrucaria subcincta, Xanthomendoza huculica and Xylographa soralifera. Including the cited taxa, the lichen biota of the Czech Republic currently comprises 1691 taxa. Key words: Biodiversity, boreal lichens, checklist, lichen-forming fungi, microlichens.
30219Nadyeina O., Dymytrova L., Naumovych A., Postoyalkin S. & Scheidegger C. (2014): Distribution and dispersal ecology of Lobaria pulmonaria in the largest primeval beech forest of Europe. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 23: 3241–3262.
Occupancy and density of the epiphytic lichen L. pulmonaria were studied in the mountains of Uholka–Shyrokyi Luh (Ukraine), which include the largest primeval beech forest in Europe. The lichen occupancy was assessed on 314 plots laid out on a systematic grid. Additional data on population density were collected from 483 trees growing both, on and between these plots. The trees harbouring L. pulmonaria were distributed very sparsely within Uholka–Shyrokyi Luh, and occupy nearly 10 % of the studied perimeter. The generalized linear models showed that area of occupancy of L. pulmonaria was significantly influenced by altitude and canopy cover, whereas the species’ density was explained by habitat types and slope exposition. Population density is higher at the timberline than in the interior forest or on lowland meadows. We found a bimodal altitudinal distribution of L. pulmonaria, with maxima below and above 900 m a.s.l., where it prefers forest stands with loose or scattered canopy. The preferred position of L. pulmonaria on host tree trunks depends on stand density and allows the species to get the necessary level of insolation also in shaded sites where it grows higher up on the trunk than in open stands. While L. pulmonaria occupied trees with various diameters, juvenile individuals are more frequent on small trees, but mature lichen individuals are predominantly found on trees of average or large sizes. Fertile individuals require specific environmental conditions, which are available at intermediate altitudes, related with sheltered light, and horizontal terraces on slopes with eastern exposition. In general, the primeval beech forest of Uholka–Shyrokyi Luh harbours a high percentage of juvenile thalli of L. pulmonaria, which lack vegetative propagules. Mature individuals have a low frequency of fruit bodies and reproduce mainly with vegetative diaspores. We interpret this as an indication of a currently growing population of L. pulmonaria within the area. We hypothesize that transboundary air pollution has decreased the lichens’ population frequency and density and has altered the ratio of developmental stages in L. pulmonaria during earlier decades. Keywords: Carpathians; Epiphytic lichen; Topographic and forest-stand variables; Juvenile; Mature; Fertile.
30218Ivančević B.N., Matavulj M.N. & Karaman M.A. (2013): Lichens in Serbian legislation. - Зборник Матице српске за природне науке / Journal for Natural Sciences, Matica Srpska Novi Sad, 2013(124): 355–365.
In this paper an overview of official regulations on the protection of lichens in the Republic of Serbia is presented, and provisions of individual regulations are analyzed. Also, the effects of adopted regulations on the protection of endangered species of lichens are discussed and general measures to improve the protection of lichens in the future are proposed. Finally, the need for further studies on lichens is suggested as a basis for their effective protection and conservation. Key words: Lichens, conservation, protection, law regulations, Serbia.
30217Ivančević B., Matavuly M. & Karaman M. (2012): Fungi (mushrooms and lichens) in Serbian legislation. - Biologia Serbica, 34: 19–35.
Protection and conservation of mushrooms and lichens is considered to be an extremely important aspect of environmental conservation as a whole; and numerous environmental, scientific, medical, economic, cultural and ethical reasons exist in support of their central significance. This paper presents an overview of official regulations on the protection of macrofungi and lichens in the republic of Serbia: from the protection act of 1991 until today. Both good and bad provisions of individual regulations are analyzed, together with the effects of adopted regulations on the protection of endangered species of fungi (macrofungi mushrooms) and lichens are discussed. In addition, the correlation between the chronological development of protective legislation and the natural population of fungi is addressed; and general measures to improve protection of mushrooms and lichens in the future are presented. Finally, the need for increased studies on mushrooms and lichens is proposed as a basis for effective protection based on scientific knowledge and expert experience. Keywords: conservation, law regulations, lichens, mushrooms, protection, Serbia.